Nutrition and Endocrine Disorders in Kidney Disease

  • Anuja Shah
  • Joel Kopple


The term protein-energy wasting (PEW) describes the decrease in body protein mass and sources of energy reserves that occurs commonly in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. PEW is generally reflected by muscle wasting and reduced fat mass. There are many non-nutritional causes for protein and fat depletion in CKD patients, including inflammation, concurrent illnesses, acidemia, losses of nutrients from dialysis or in urine, the accumulation of potentially catabolic metabolites, possibly impaired metabolic activity of the kidney, side effects of medications, and increased circulating levels or altered activity of catabolic or anabolic hormones. The high prevalence of protein-energy disorders in CKD patients has important implications for their medical management.


Nutrition Protein-energy wasting Chronic kidney disease Parathyroid hormone Vitamin D Testosterone Glucocorticoids Growth hormone Insulin Ghrelin Obestatin Adipokines Thyroid hormone 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anuja Shah
    • 1
  • Joel Kopple
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology and HypertensionHarbor-UCLA Medical CenterTorranceUSA
  2. 2.Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineHarbor-UCLA Medical CenterTorranceUSA

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