Calcium Homeostasis in Kidney Disease

  • Michel ChoncholEmail author
  • Jessica Kendrick


Maintenance of calcium levels within a narrow physiological range is essential to life. Calcium homeostasis is complex and tightly regulated and depends on regulation of calcium fluxes within the intestine, kidney, and bones. Calcium metabolism is controlled by calcium itself through a calcium receptor and several hormones, the major ones of which are parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). PTH and 1,25(OH)2D exert their effects on the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and bone in order to maintain normal levels of calcium. Hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia indicate critical disruptions of calcium homeostasis. This chapter reviews the regulation of calcium homeostasis and the diagnosis and management of disorders of calcium metabolism.


Calcium Active vitamin D Parathyroid hormone Kidney Hypercalcemia Hypocalcemia Regulation Absorption Clinical manifestations Management 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado Hospital, Department of MedicineAuroraUSA
  2. 2.Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Department of MedicineDenver Health Medical Center and University of ColoradoDenverUSA

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