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Lipid Disorders Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease and Nephrotic Syndrome

  • Hamid MoradiEmail author
  • Nosratola D. Vaziri
Chapter

Abstract

Based on data from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS), there are approximately 25 million patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States. From this astonishing number, roughly 450,000 patients have end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring weekly/daily renal replacement therapy. Furthermore, given the prevalence of the causes of CKD, it is expected that the number of patients with ESRD will increase to more than 750,000 by 2020. Treatment of CKD-/ESRD-related complications is associated with significant economic, healthcare, and societal costs, the ramification of which is becoming more and more recognized. Therefore understanding the pathophysiology of CKD and its complications has significant preventive and therapeutic value. It is well known that CKD and proteinuria are associated with significant alterations in lipid metabolism and plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile. These abnormalities can play a substantial role in pathogenesis and progression of renal and cardiovascular disease in this population. There are many different factors which can impact lipid metabolism and contribute to the nature of lipid abnormalities observed in patients with kidney disease. These include preexisting genetic disorders, severity of kidney disease, presence and degree of proteinuria, dietary restrictions, features unique to each type of renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis), renal transplantation, and pharmacologic therapies commonly utilized in this patient population. In this chapter, we will outline the features of dyslipidemia observed in kidney disease, their underlying mechanisms, and potential significance of these observations.

Keywords

Inflammation Chronic kidney disease Proteinuria Nephrotic syndrome Progression of kidney disease Hemodialysis  Peritoneal dialysis Cardiovascular disease Renal transplantation 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Nephrology and HypertensionUniversity of California Irvine School of MedicineOrangeUSA
  2. 2.Tibor Rubin Veterans Affairs Medical CenterLong BeachUSA

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