Recreational Scuba Diving and Snorkelling

  • David Huddart


In this chapter, recreation diving is defined, and the numbers involved and impacts discussed. However, it is difficult to quantify the impact of any one of many stressors on coral reefs independently of the others. There is often a lack of scientific understanding of the interrelationships which limits the success of efforts to effectively create policy and regulations preventing reef decline. The impacts include direct trampling by reef walking, from the effects of pontoons (installation, anchor damage, fish feeding), direct impacts from diver behaviour including sediments raised, the effects on the corals (including effects of sunscreens), impacts on fish communities and kelp forests. The ways of managing activities to reduce the impacts are discussed, including reducing use levels, modifying diver behaviour, establishing underwater diving and sculpture trails, artificial reefs, fee charging changes, and diver involvement in conservation projects.


Reef walking Diver behaviour Fish communities Kelp forests Artificial reefs 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Huddart
    • 1
  1. 1.Liverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK

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