Proximal Humerus Neoplasia: Revision of the Literature

  • Silvana De GiorgiEmail author
  • Francesco Maruccia
  • Vito Belviso
  • Biagio Moretti


Neoplasms of the proximal humerus can be classified in malign and benign neoplasia.

Benign bone tumors are osteoid osteoma, chondroid osteoma, or osteocartilaginous exostosis but also enchondroma and chondroblastoma.

Non-osseous fibroma is the commonest fibrous tumor.

Malign humeral bone tumors are osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and chondrosarcoma but also metastatic lesions to the upper humeral stem.

Treatment of proximal humeral tumors is presented and described with a revision of the literature about this topic, in the present chapter.


Humerus neoplasia Bone tumors Humeral stem 


  1. 1.
    Yang Q, Li J, Yang Z, Li X, Li Z. Limb sparing surgery for bone tumours of the shoulder girdle: the oncological and functional results. Int Orthop. 2010;34(6):869–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    O’Connell JX, Nanthakumar SS, Nielsen GP, et al. Osteoid osteoma: the uniquely innervated bone tumor. Mod Pathol. 1998;11:175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sekiguchi K, Tsutsumi S, Arai S, Nonaka S, Suzuki T, Ishii H, Izumi H, Yasumoto Y. Osteochondroma presenting as a calcified mass in the sellar region and review of the literature. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2017;78:380–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Deckers C, Schreuder BH, Hannink G, de Rooy JW, van der Geest IC. Radiologic follow-up of untreated enchondroma and atypical cartilaginous tumors in the long bones. J Surg Oncol. 2016;114:987–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Karkhur Y, Tiwari A, Verma T, Maini L. Unusual presentation of chondroblastoma mimicking Trevor’s disease. J Postgrad Med. 2017;63:197–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Geibel MA, Schreiber E, Bracher AK, Hell E, Ulrici J, Sailer LK, Rasche V. Characterisation of apical bone lesions: comparison of MRI and CBCT with histological findings—a case series. Eur J Oral Implantol. 2017;10:197–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Elsayad K, Kriz J, et al. Radiotherapy for aneurysmal bone cysts: a rare indication. Strahlenther Onkol. 2017;193:332–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Traub F, Eberhardt O, Fernandez FF, Wirth T. Solitary bone cyst: a comparison of treatment options with special reference to their long-term outcome. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016;14(17):162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Choi ES, Han I, Cho HS, Park IW, Park JW, Kim HS. Intramedullary nailing for pathological fractures of the proximal humerus. Clin Orthop Surg. 2016;8:458–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rogozhin DV, Bulycheva IV, Konovalov DM, Talalaev AG, Roshchin VY, Ektova AP, Bogoroditsky YU, Strykov VA, Kazakova AN, Olshanskaya YU, Kachanov DY, Tereshchenko GV. Classical osteosarcoma in children and adolescent. Arkh Patol. 2015;77(5):68–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cates JM, Schoenecker JG. Proximal location in extremity long bones is a poor prognostic factor for osteosarcoma: a retrospective cohort study of 153 patients. Acta Oncol. 2016;55(8):1036–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Simon MA. Diagnostic strategies. Surgery for bone and soft tissue tumors. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1998. p. 21.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Esmaili HA, Niknejad MT. Mohajeri Ewing’s sarcoma of proximal humeral epiphysis. Arch Iran Med. 2015;18(2):133–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zheng K, Peng ZX, Zheng PP. Chondrosarcoma of the proximal humerus secondary to ollier disease: an 8-year follow-up of successful resection of the tumor with endoprosthetic replacement of the proximal humerus. J Clin Med Res. 2014;6(3):218–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Redmond BJ, Biermann JS, Blasier RB. Interlocking intramedullary nailing of pathologic fractures of the shaft of the humerus. J Bone Joint Surg. 1996;78:891–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Guven MF, Aslan L, Botanlioglu H, Kaynak G, Kesmezacar H, Babacan M. Functional outcome of reverse shoulder tumor prosthesis in the treatment of proximal humerus tumors. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2016;25(1):e1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bonnevialle N, Mansat P, Lebon J, Lafosse JM, Bonnevialle P. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for malignant tumors of proximal humerus. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2015;24(1):36–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    King JJ, Nystrom LM, Reimer NB, Gibbs CP Jr, Scarborough MT, Wright TW. Allograft-prosthetic composite reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for reconstruction of proximal humerus tumor resections. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2016;25(1):45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gouin F, Creen V. Reconstruction following shoulder resection for bone tumor. Bull Cancer. 2014;101(10):951–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tang X, Guo W, Yang R, Tang S, Ji T. Synthetic mesh improves shoulder function after intraarticular resection and prosthetic replacement of proximal humerus. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015;473(4):1464–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Potter BK, Adams SC, Pitcher JD Jr, Malinin TI, Temple HT. Proximal humerus reconstructions for tumors. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009;467(4):1035–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Teunis T, Nota SP, Hornicek FJ, Schwab JH, Lozano-Calderón SA. Outcome after reconstruction of the proximal humerus for tumor resection: a systematic review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014;472(7):2245–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kneisl JS. Function after amputation, arthrodesis, or arthroplasty for tumors about the shoulder. J South Orthop Assoc. 1995;4(3):228–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Viehweger E, Gonzalez JF, Launay F, Legre R, Jouve JL, Bollini G. Shoulder arthrodesis with vascularized fibular graft after tumor resection of the proximal humerus. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 2005;91(6):523–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kassab M, Dumaine V, Babinet A, Ouaknine M, Tomeno B, Anract P. Twenty nine shoulder reconstructions after resection of the proximal humerus for neoplasm with mean 7-year follow-up. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 2005;91(1):15–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Abdeen A, Hoang BH, Athanasian EA, Morris CD, Boland PJ, Healey JH. Allograft-prosthesis composite reconstruction of the proximal part of the humerus: functional outcome and survivorship. J Bone Joint Surg. 2009;91(10):2406–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Getty PJ, Peabody TD. Complications and functional outcomes of reconstruction with an osteoarticular allograft after intra-articular resection of the proximal aspect of the humerus. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999;81(8):1138–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silvana De Giorgi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Francesco Maruccia
    • 1
  • Vito Belviso
    • 1
  • Biagio Moretti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory OrgansUniversity of BariBariItaly

Personalised recommendations