The Cardiovascular System

  • Mark Greenwood
  • John G. Meechan
Part of the BDJ Clinician’s Guides book series (BDJCG)


  • Cardiovascular disease is common.

  • Pain and anxiety increase cardiac load and increase the risk of precipitating angina/arrhythmias.

  • A thorough history will usually elicit the fact that the patient has cardiovascular disease (summarised in Table 2.2).

  • Examination of the patient may reveal cardiovascular disease—cyanosis (central/peripheral), shortage of breath, abnormalities in the pulse, finger clubbing, splinter haemorrhages or ankle oedema.

  • Drugs used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease impact on patient management.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Greenwood
    • 1
  • John G. Meechan
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Dental SciencesNewcastle University School of Dental SciencesNewcastle upon TyneUK
  2. 2.The Coach HouseStocksfieldUK

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