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In post-1945 western Europe attempted to avoid future wars by promoting human rights. Yet, implementation immediately proved a problem, particularly as millions of people moved across the continent. Most states acknowledged responsibility for their citizens but hesitated over non-citizens. That issue was particularly pressing for children as they needed schooling in order to eventually become workers and good citizens. An international concern, the Council of Europe and European Community both weighed in, but local states had to implement recommendations. This book uses West Germany as a case study to examine how that right was extended to non-nationals through subsequent waves of European migration. It demonstrates how, despite inclusive rhetoric, access to schooling changed based on citizenship status and perceptions of the other.