Advertisement

Tailoring PCIT for Latino/a Families

  • Allison S. Christian-Brandt
  • Jacqueline A. Philpott
Chapter

Abstract

The Latino/a community is a diverse population encompassing various races, cultural beliefs and practices, acculturation levels, and countries of origin. Many Latino/a families face challenges such as migration and acculturation stress, language barriers, separation from family members, disruption of support systems, discrimination, social inequalities, and poverty. These stressors place many Latino/a children at heightened risk for mental health issues. However, Latino/a families experience significant disparities in access to and quality of health services compared to non-Latino/a Caucasians, even when controlling for socio-demographic variables. In this chapter, we review research on the application of standard PCIT and adaptations of PCIT among Latino/a families, highlighting the advantages and challenges in implementation. A case example of PCIT with a Latino/a family is discussed. The most rigorous research suggests that PCIT is efficacious in treating Latino/a families with and without adaptations, and is readily tailored without altering its structure or core content. Multiple aspects of standard PCIT have been found to be consistent with cultural values within the Latino/a community. Necessary next steps include developing innovative ways to improve access to evidence-based services for families who need them.

Keywords

Parent–child interaction therapy Latino/a families Behavioral parent training 

References

  1. Acevedo-Polakovich, I. D., Niec, L. N., Barnett, M. L., & Bell, K. M. (2013). Incorporating natural helpers to address service disparities for young children with conduct problems. Children and Youth Services Review, 35(9), 1463–1467.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). (2017). 2016 National Healthcare Quality & Disparities Report. (AHRQ Pub. No. 17-0001). Retrieved from https://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhqdr16/index.html
  3. Alegría, M., Chatterji, P., Wells, K., Cao, Z., Chen, C. N., Takeuchi, D., … Meng, X. L. (2008). Disparity in depression treatment among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. Psychiatric Services, 59(11), 1264–1272.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Alegria, M., & Woo, M. (2009). Conceptual issues in Latino/a mental health. In F. A. Villarruel, G. Carlo, J. M. Grau, M. Azmitia, N. J. Cabrera, & T. J. Chahin (Eds.), Handbook of US Latino/a psychology: Developmental and community-based perspectives (pp. 15–30). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  5. Alexandre, P. K., Martins, S. S., & Richard, P. (2009). Disparities in adequate mental health care for past-year major depressive episodes among Caucasian and Hispanic youths. Psychiatric Services, 60(10), 1365–1371.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Allen, B., Timmer, S. G., & Urquiza, A. J. (2014). Parent–child interaction therapy as an attachment-based intervention: Theoretical rationale and pilot data with adopted children. Children and Youth Services Review, 47, 334–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arciniega, G. M., Anderson, T. C., Tovar-Blank, Z. G., & Tracey, T. J. (2008). Toward a fuller conception of Machismo: Development of a traditional Machismo and Caballerismo Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55(1), 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ayón, C., & Aisenberg, E. (2010). Negotiating cultural values and expectations within the public child welfare system: A look at familismo and personalismo. Child & Family Social Work, 15(3), 335–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barker, C. H., Cook, K. L., & Borrego, J. (2010). Addressing cultural variables in parent training programs with Latino/a families. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 17(2), 157–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernal, G., & Sáez-Santiago, E. (2006). Culturally centered psychosocial interventions. Journal of Community Psychology, 34(2), 121–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borrego, J., Anhalt, K., Terao, S. Y., Vargas, E. C., & Urquiza, A. J. (2006). Parent-child interaction therapy with a Spanish-speaking family. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 13(2), 121–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Borrego, J., Ibanez, E. S., Spendlove, S. J., & Pemberton, J. R. (2007). Treatment acceptability among Mexican American parents. Behavior Therapy, 38(3), 218–227.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Butler, A. M., & Eyberg, S. M. (2006). Parent–child interaction therapy and ethnic minority children. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 1(3), 246–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cabassa, L., Zayas, L., & Hansen, M. (2006). Latino/a adults’ access to mental health care: A review of epidemiological studies. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 33(3), 316–330.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Campos, B., Schetter, C. D., Abdou, C. M., Hobel, C. J., Glynn, L. M., & Sandman, C. A. (2008). Familialism, social support, and stress: Positive implications for pregnant Latinas. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14(2), 155–162.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Cardemil, E. V., & Sarmiento, I. A. (2009). Clinical approaches to working with Latino/a adults. In Handbook of Latino/a psychology (pp. 329–345). Los Angeles: SAGE.Google Scholar
  17. Castillo, L. G., Perez, F. V., Castillo, R., & Ghosheh, M. R. (2010). Construction and initial validation of the Marianismo Beliefs Scale. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 23(2), 163–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chun, K. M., & Akutsu, P. D. (2003). Acculturation among ethnic minority families. In K. M. Chun, P. B. Organista, & G. Marin (Eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement and applied research (pp. 95–119). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coatsworth, J. D., Pantin, H., & Szapocznik, J. (2002). Familias Unidas: A family-centered ecodevelopmental intervention to reduce risk for problem behavior among Hispanic adolescents. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5(2), 113–132.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Coker, T. R., Elliott, M. N., Kataoka, S., Schwebel, D. C., Mrug, S., Grunbaum, J. A., … Schuster, M. A. (2009). Racial/ethnic disparities in the mental health care utilization of fifth grade children. Academic Pediatrics, 9(2), 89–96.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Committee for Hispanic Children and Families (CHCF). (2004). Creating a Latino/a child welfare agenda: A strategic framework for change. New York: Committee for Hispanic Children and Families, Inc..Google Scholar
  22. D’Anna, L. H., Ponce, N. A., & Siegel, J. M. (2010). Racial and ethnic health disparities: Evidence of discrimination's effects across the SEP spectrum. Ethnicity & Health, 15(2), 121–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. DeNavas-Walt, C., & Proctor, B. D. (2014). Income and poverty in the United States: 2013 (US Census Bureau, current population reports, P60-249). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  24. Eyberg, S. M. (2005). Tailoring and adapting parent-child interaction therapy to new populations. Education and Treatment of Children, 28, 197–201.Google Scholar
  25. Flicker, S. M., Turner, C. W., Waldron, H. B., Brody, J. L., & Ozechowski, T. J. (2008). Ethnic background, therapeutic alliance, and treatment retention in functional family therapy with adolescents who abuse substances. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(1), 167.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Flores, G. (2010). Technical report—Racial and ethnic disparities in the health and health care of children. Pediatrics, 125(4), 979–1020.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-0188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Flores, G., Abreu, M., Schwartz, I., & Hill, M. (2000). The importance of language and culture in pediatric care: Case studies from the Latino/a community. The Journal of Pediatrics, 137(6), 842–848.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Fontes, L. (2005). Working with immigrant families affected by child maltreatment. In L. Fontes (Ed.), Child abuse and culture: Working with diverse families (pp. 30–57). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  29. Fontes, L. A. (2002). Child discipline and physical abuse in immigrant Latino/a families: Reducing violence and misunderstandings. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80(1), 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Forehand, R., & Kotchick, B. A. (2002). Behavioral parent training: Current challenges and potential solutions. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11(4), 377–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Freedenthal, S. (2007). Racial disparities in mental health service use by adolescents who thought about or attempted suicide. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 37(1), 22–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. French, S. E., & Chavez, N. R. (2010). The relationship of ethnicity-related stressors and Latino/a ethnic identity to well-being. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 32(3), 410–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Garland, A. F., Lau, A. S., Yeh, M., McCabe, K. M., Hough, R. L., & Landsverk, J. A. (2005). Racial and ethnic differences in utilization of mental health services among high-risk youths. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(7), 1336–1343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garza, Y., & Watts, R. E. (2010). Filial therapy and Hispanic values: Common ground for culturally sensitive helping. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88(1), 108–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gonzales, N. A., Fabrett, F. C., & Knight, G. P. (2009). Acculturation, enculturation, and the psychosocial adaptation of Latino/a youth. In F. A. Villarruel, G. Carlo, J. M. Grau, M. Azmitia, N. J. Cabrera, & T. J. Chahin (Eds.), Handbook of US Latino/a psychology: Developmental and community-based perspectives (pp. 115–134). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  36. Grau, J. M., Azmitia, M., & Quattlebaum, J. (2009). Latino/a families. In Handbook of US Latino/a psychology: Developmental and community-based perspectives (p. 153). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  37. Guilamo-Ramos, V., Dittus, P., Jaccard, J., Johansson, M., Bouris, A., & Acosta, N. (2007). Parenting practices among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers. Social Work, 52(1), 17–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gutiérrez, V. G., Rafiee, C., Bartelma, E. K., & Guerra, V. (2010). An English-Spanish manual for mental health professionals. United States: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.Google Scholar
  39. Halgunseth, L. C., Ispa, J. M., & Rudy, D. (2006). Parental control in Latino/a families: An integrated review of the literature. Child Development, 77(5), 1282–1297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Harpaz-Rotem, I., Leslie, D., & Rosenheck, R. A. (2004). Treatment retention among children entering a new episode of mental health care. Psychiatric Services, 55(9), 1022–1028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoagwood, K. E., Olin, S. S., Horwitz, S., McKay, M., Cleek, A., Gleacher, A., … Kuppinger, A. (2014). Scaling up evidence-based practices for children and families in New York State: Toward evidence-based policies on implementation for state mental health systems. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 43(2), 145–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kapke, T. L., & Gerdes, A. C. (2016). Latino/a family participation in youth mental health services: Treatment retention, engagement, and response. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 19(4), 329–351.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Kataoka, S. H., Zhang, L., & Wells, K. B. (2002). Unmet need for mental health care among US children: Variation by ethnicity and insurance status. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(9), 1548–1555.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Keller, H. (2013). Culture and development: Developmental pathways to psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 6(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Keyes, K. M., Martins, S. S., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Blanco, C., Bates, L. M., & Hasin, D. S. (2012). Mental health service utilization for psychiatric disorders among Latino/as living in the United States: The role of ethnic subgroup, ethnic identity, and language/social preferences. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47(3), 383–394.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Kim, G., Aguado Loi, C. X., Chiriboga, D. A., Jang, Y., Parmelee, P., & Allen, R. S. (2011). Limited English proficiency as a barrier to mental health service use: A study of Latino/a and Asian immigrants with psychiatric disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(1), 104–110.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Lara, M., Gamboa, C., Kahramanian, M. I., Morales, L. S., & Bautista, D. E. (2005). Acculturation and Latino/a health in the United States: A review of the literature and its sociopolitical context. Annual Review of Public Health, 26, 367–397.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. LaVeist, T. A., Gaskin, D., & Richard, P. (2011). Estimating the economic burden of racial health inequalities in the United States. International Journal of Health Services, 41(2), 231–238.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health (LACDMH). (2011). Status report on the MHSA PEI plan. Retrieved from http://file.lacounty.gov/dmh/cms1_165911.pdf.
  50. Matos, M., Bauermeister, J. J., & Bernal, G. (2009). Parent-child interaction therapy for Puerto Rican preschool children with ADHD and behavior problems: A pilot efficacy study. Family Process, 48(2), 232–252.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Matos, M., Torres, R., Santiago, R., Jurado, M., & Rodríguez, I. X. A. (2006). Adaptation of parent–child interaction therapy for Puerto Rican families: A preliminary study. Family Process, 45(2), 205–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McCabe, K., & Yeh, M. (2009). Parent–child interaction therapy for Mexican Americans: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38(5), 753–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McCabe, K., Yeh, M., Lau, A., & Argote, C. B. (2012). Parent-child interaction therapy for Mexican Americans: Results of a pilot randomized clinical trial at follow-up. Behavior Therapy, 43(3), 606–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McCabe, K. M. (2002). Factors that predict premature termination among Mexican-American children in outpatient psychotherapy. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11(3), 347–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McCabe, K. M., Yeh, M., Garland, A. F., Lau, A. S., & Chavez, G. (2005). The GANA program: A tailoring approach to adapting parent–child interaction therapy for Mexican Americans. Education and Treatment of Children, 28(2), 111–129.Google Scholar
  56. McHugh, R. K., & Barlow, D. H. (2010). The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments: A review of current efforts. American Psychologist, 65(2), 73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. McKay, M. M., & Bannon, W. M., Jr. (2004). Engaging families in child mental health services. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 13(4), 905–921.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. McKay, M. M., Stoewe, J., McCadam, K., & Gonzales, J. (1998). Increasing access to child mental health services for urban children and their caregivers. Health & Social Work, 23(1), 9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Merikangas, K. R., He, J. P., Burstein, M., Swendsen, J., Avenevoli, S., Case, B., … Olfson, M. (2011). Service utilization for lifetime mental disorders in US adolescents: Results of the National Comorbidity Survey–Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(1), 32–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Miller, L. M., Southam-Gerow, M. A., & Allin, R. B. (2008). Who stays in treatment? Child and family predictors of youth client retention in a public mental health agency. Child & Youth Care Forum, 37(4), 153–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mio, J., & Iwamasa, G. (2003). Culturally diverse mental health: The challenges of research and resistant. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  62. Nandi, A., Galea, S., Lopez, G., Nandi, V., Strongarone, S., & Ompad, D. C. (2008). Access to and use of health services among undocumented Mexican immigrants in a US urban area. American Journal of Public Health, 98(11), 2011–2020.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Niec, L. N., Acevedo-Polakovich, I. D., Abbenante-Honold, E., Christian, A. S., Barnett, M. L., Aguilar, G., & Peer, S. O. (2014). Working together to solve disparities: Latina/o parents’ contributions to the adaptation of a preventive intervention for childhood conduct problems. Psychological Services, 11(4), 410.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Owens, P. L., Hoagwood, K., Horwitz, S. M., Leaf, P. J., Poduska, J. M., Kellam, S. G., & Ialongo, N. S. (2002). Barriers to children’s mental health services. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(6), 731–738.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Pemberton, J. R., & Borrego Jr, J. (2007). Increasing acceptance of behavioral child management techniques: What do parents say?. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 29(2), 27–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Piña-Watson, B., Castillo, L. G., Jung, E., Ojeda, L., & Castillo-Reyes, R. (2014). The Marianismo Beliefs Scale: Validation with Mexican American adolescent girls and boys. Journal of Latina/o Psychology, 2(2), 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Porter, A., Timmer, S., Klisanac, L. M., Urquiza, A. J., Zebell, N., & McGrath, J. (2012). Dissemination of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Out of the university and into the community. Retrieved from http://pcit.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/outcome-poster.pdf
  68. Rastogi, M., Massey-Hastings, N., & Wieling, E. (2012). Barriers to seeking mental health services in the Latino/a community: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 31(4), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rodríguez, M. A., Bustamante, A. V., & Ang, A. (2009). Perceived quality of care, receipt of preventive care, and usual source of health care among undocumented and other Latino/as. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(3), 508.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Romero, A. J., & Ruiz, M. (2007). Does familism lead to increased parental monitoring?: Protective factors for coping with risky behaviors. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16(2), 143–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Santisteban, D. A., Suarez-Morales, L., Robbins, M. S., & Szapocznik, J. (2006). Brief strategic family therapy: Lessons learned in efficacy research and challenges to blending research and practice. Family Process, 45(2), 259–271.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shattell, M. M., Hamilton, D., Starr, S. S., Jenkins, C. J., & Hinderliter, N. A. (2008). Mental health service needs of a Latino/a population: A community-based participatory research project. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 29(4), 351–370.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Shavers, V. L., Klein, W. M., & Fagan, P. (2012). Research on race/ethnicity and health care discrimination: Where we are and where we need to go. American Journal of Public Health, 102(5), 930–932.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Smith, R., & Montilla, R. (2006). Counseling and family therapy with Latino/a populations: Strategies that work. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  75. Stacciarini, J. M. R., Rosa, A., Ortiz, M., Munari, D. B., Uicab, G., & Balam, M. (2012). Promotoras in mental health: A review of English, Spanish, and Portuguese literature. Family & Community Health, 35(2), 92–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Starin, A. C., Atkins, M. S., Wehrmann, K. C., Mehta, T., Hesson-McInnis, M. S., Marinez-Lora, A., & Mehlinger, R. (2014). Moving science into state child and adolescent mental health systems: Illinois’ evidence-informed practice initiative. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 43(2), 169–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stein, G. L., Cuptio, A. M., Mendez, J. L., Prandoni, J., Huq, N., & Westerbeg, D. (2014). Familism through a developmental lens. Journal of Latina/o Psychology, 2(4), 224–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sue, D., & Sue, D. W. (2016). Counseling the cultural diverse: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.Google Scholar
  79. Szapocznik, J., Schwartz, S. J., Muir, J. A., & Brown, H. (2012). Brief strategic family therapy: An intervention to reduce adolescent risk behavior. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, 1(2), 134–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Timmer, S. G., Ho, L. K., Urquiza, A. J., Zebell, N. M., Y Garcia, E. F., & Boys, D. (2011). The effectiveness of parent–child interaction therapy with depressive mothers: The changing relationship as the agent of individual change. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 42(4), 406–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Timmer, S. G., Urquiza, A. J., Boys, D. K., Forte, L. A., Quick-Abdullah, D., Chan, S., & Gould, W. (2016). Filling potholes on the implementation highway: Evaluating the implementation of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy in Los Angeles County. Child Abuse & Neglect, 53, 40–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Timmer, S. G., Ware, L. M., Urquiza, A. J., & Zebell, N. M. (2010). The effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy for victims of interparental violence. Violence and Victims, 25(4), 486.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Triemstra, K., Niec, L., Peer, S., & Christian-Brandt, A. S. (2016). The influence of conventional masculine gender norms on parental attitudes toward seeking psychological services for children. Psychology of Men & Masculinity.  https://doi.org/10.1037/men0000055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Trupin, E., & Kerns, S. (2017). Introduction to the special issue: Legislation related to children’s evidence-based practice. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 44(1), 1–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. United States Public Health Service (USPHS), Office of the Surgeon General, Center for Mental Health Services (US), United States Substance Abuse, Mental Health Services Administration, & National Institute of Mental Health (US). (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity: A supplement to mental health: A report of the surgeon general. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US) Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44243/Google Scholar
  86. US Census Bureau (USCB). (2012). US Census Bureau projections show a slower growing, older, more diverse nation a half century from now (US Census Bureau Publication No. CB12-243). Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/population/cb12-243.html.
  87. US Census Bureau (USCB). (2013). Age and sex table packages and race and Hispanic origin table packages: 2012 (CB13-TPS.103). Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/population/hispanic/data/2012.html.
  88. US Census Bureau (USCB). (2015). 2015 American Community Survey 1-year estimates (data file). Retrieved from https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk.
  89. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity—A supplement to mental health: A report of the surgeon general. Rockville, MD: DHHS, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Walker, J. S. (2001). Caregivers’ view on the cultural appropriateness of services for children with emotional or behavioral disorders. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 10(3), 315–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Yeh, M., Hough, R. L., McCabe, K., Lau, A., & Garland, A. (2004). Parental beliefs about the causes of child problems: Exploring racial/ethnic patterns. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(5), 605–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Yeh, M., McCabe, K., Hough, R. L., Lau, A., Fakhry, F., & Garland, A. (2005). Why bother with beliefs? Examining relationships between race/ethnicity, parental beliefs about causes of child problems, and mental health service use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(5), 800.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Yeh, M., McCabe, K., Hurlburt, M., Hough, R., Hazen, A., Culver, S., … Landsverk, J. (2002). Referral sources, diagnoses, and service types of youth in public outpatient mental health care: A focus on ethnic minorities. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, 29(1), 45–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Young, A. S., & Rabiner, D. (2015). Racial/ethnic differences in parent-reported barriers to accessing children’s health services. Psychological Services, 12(3), 267–273.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allison S. Christian-Brandt
    • 1
  • Jacqueline A. Philpott
    • 1
  1. 1.Pacific University OregonForest GroveUSA

Personalised recommendations