Translating Models of Support for Women with Chronic Viral Infection to Address the Reproductive Health Needs of West African Ebola Survivors

  • Caroline Crystal
  • Laura A. Skrip
  • Tolbert Nyenswah
  • Hilary Flumo
  • Alison P. Galvani
  • David P. Durham
  • Mosoka P. Fallah
Part of the Global Maternal and Child Health book series (GMCH)


In addition to physical ailments and the possibility of viral persistence in reproductive organs, female Ebola survivors face significant stigma and associated psychological health issues. Programs to meet the varied reproductive health needs of female Ebola survivors are critical, but lack historical models. This chapter, therefore, identifies successful programs to address the needs of young adult women with other communicable diseases, namely HIV and hepatitis.

First, Ebola survivors’ risk of transmission is addressed by reporting the current knowledge of transmission potential among female Ebola survivors and programs to prevent transmission for other chronic viral infections. Subsequently, the chapter presents programs intended to educate the broader community about HIV and hepatitis and to offer support for those infected. Recent efforts to help Ebola survivors in Liberia are then described, focusing on the experiences of pregnant Ebola survivors and the PREVAIL Natural History Study and birth cohort study.

Finally, the chapter supplies recommendations to utilize available information about Ebola and other infections to prevent transmission and to provide education and support for female Ebola survivors. These recommendations include the provision of public awareness and education campaigns, guidance regarding reproductive choices, medical precautions and protocols, supportive environments, and therapeutic relationships with health care practitioners and peer mentors.


Ebola virus disease Ebola survivors Viral persistence Infection prevention and control Maternal and child health Liberia Maternal mortality Reproductive health Chronic viral infection Infectious disease transmission Public health interventions Evidence-based policy Community health 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caroline Crystal
    • 1
  • Laura A. Skrip
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tolbert Nyenswah
    • 2
  • Hilary Flumo
    • 3
  • Alison P. Galvani
    • 1
    • 4
  • David P. Durham
    • 1
  • Mosoka P. Fallah
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Center for Infectious Disease Modeling and Analysis (CIDMA), Yale School of Public HealthNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.National Public Health Institute of LiberiaMonroviaLiberia
  3. 3.National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, PREVAIL-III StudyMonroviaLiberia
  4. 4.A.M. Dogliotti College of Medicine, University of LiberiaMonroviaLiberia

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