Ebola’s Assault on Women, Children, and Family Reproduction: An Introduction to the Issues
- 371 Downloads
What is certain is that pregnancy and childbirth, even during global health disasters and humanitarian emergencies, will always happen. The subject of this book—pregnancy, women, and children during the West Africa Ebola epidemic of 2013–2015—is challenging to capture in an introduction. The problems of pregnancy and childhood during the West Africa Ebola epidemic posed specific challenges and unanswered opportunities that require a biosocial approach, a respect for phenomenological experience, and an unprecedented level of seriousness about sociocultural factors. In the decade before the west African epidemic, significant gains had been achieved in maternal, infant, and childhood health and mortality in the countries most affected by Ebola—Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. The Ebola epidemic erased these gains. This book establishes a framework of a cross-cutting research agenda that is derived from the necessarily partial and incomplete presentations of evidence and experiences by an interdisciplinary group of contributors who took the risk of sharing what they knew about the Ebola outbreak based upon their own experiences and insights. Each chapter offers a glimpse into one facet of the kaleidoscopic biology, epidemiology, clinical care, and human experience of pregnancy, infancy, and early childhood during the Ebola virus disease epidemic that remain elusive as a whole.
KeywordsWomen Children Reproduction Pregnancy Ebola Sociocultural Anthropology Research Knowledge Epidemiology
- Abramowitz, S. A., McLean, K. E., McKune, S. L., Bardosh, K. L., Fallah, M., Monger, J., et al. (2015). Community-centered responses to Ebola in urban Liberia: The view from below. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9(4), e0003706. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003706. Retrieved March 31, 2018, from http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0003706.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Abramowitz, S., Rogers, B., Aklilu, L., Lee, S., & Hipgrave, D. (2016). Ebola community care centers: Lessons learned from UNICEF’s 2014-2015 experience in Sierra Leone. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved March 31, 2018, from https://www.unicef.org/health/files/CCCReport_FINAL_July2016.pdf.Google Scholar
- Alirol, E., Kuesel, A. C., Guraiib, M. M., Fuente-Núñez, V., Saxena, A., & Gomes, M. F. (2017). Ethics review of studies during public health emergencies—The experience of the WHO ethics review committee during the Ebola virus disease epidemic. BMC Medical Ethics, 18, 43. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12910-017-0201-1. Retrieved March 31, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5485606/.
- Botelho, G., & Wilson, J. (2014). Thomas Eric Duncan: First Ebola death in U.S. CNN. Retrieved March 31, 2018, from https://www.cnn.com/2014/10/08/health/thomas-eric-duncan-ebola/index.html.
- Caluwaerts, S. (2017). Nubia’s mother: Being pregnant in the time of experimental vaccines and therapeutics for Ebola. BMC Reproductive Health, 14(Suppl 3), 157. Retrieved March 30, 2018, from https://reproductive-health-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12978-017-0429-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Carazo Perez, S., Folkesson, E., Anglaret, X., Beavogui, A.-H., Berbain, E., Camara, A.-M., et al. (2017). Challenges in preparing and implementing a clinical trial at field level in an Ebola emergency: A case study in Guinea, West Africa. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(6), e0005545. Retrieved March 31, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5480829/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Epelboin, A., Formenty, P., Anoko, J., & Allarangar, Y. Allarangar, Y. (2008). Humanisation and informed consent for people and populations during responses to VHF in Central Africa (2003-2008). In: Humanitarian borders (pp. 25–37). Retrieved March 30, 2018, from http://www.crcf.sn/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Epelboin2008MSFHumanisationOutbreakResponse_En.pdf.
- Fallah, M. P., Skrip, L. A., Dahn, B. T., Nyenswah, T. G., Flumo, H., Glayweon, M., et al. (2016). Pregnancy outcomes in Liberian women who conceived after recovery from Ebola virus disease. The Lancet Global Health, 4(10), e678–e679. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(16)30147-4. Retrieved March 30, 2018, from http://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(16)30147-4/fulltext.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gomes, M. F., Fuente-Núñez, V., Saxena, A., & Kuesel, A. C. (2017). Protected to death: Systematic exclusion of pregnant women from Ebola virus disease trials. Reproductive Health, 14(Suppl 3), 172. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-017-0430-2. Retrieved March 31, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5751665/.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Henao-Restrepo, A. M., Longini, I. M., Egger, M., Dean, N. E., Edmunds, J., Camacho, A., et al. (2015). Efficacy and effectiveness of an rVSV-vectored vaccine expressing Ebola surface glycoprotein: Interim results from the Guinea ring vaccination cluster-randomised trial. The Lancet, 386(29), 857–866. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61117-5. Retrieved March 31, 2018, from http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(15)61117-5/fulltext.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Henwood, P. C., Bebell, L. M., Roshania, R., Wolfman, V., Mallow, M., Kalyanpur, A., et al. (2017). Ebola virus disease and pregnancy: A retrospective cohort study of patients managed at 5 Ebola treatment units in West Africa. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 65(2), 292–299. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix290. Retrieved March 31, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5850452/.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Largent, E. A. (2016). Ebola and FDA: Reviewing the response to the 2014 outbreak, to find lessons for the future. Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 3(3), 489–537. https://doi.org/10.1093/jlb/lsw046. Retrieved March 31, 2018, from https://academic.oup.com/jlb/article/3/3/489/2548359.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Maxmen, A., & Muller, P. (2015). How the fight against Ebola tested a culture’s traditions. National Geographic. Retrieved from https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/01/150130-ebola-virus-outbreak-epidemic-sierra-leone-funerals/.
- McLean, K. E., Abramowitz, S. A., Ball, J. D., Monger, J., Tehoungue, K., McKune, S. L., et al. (2018). Community-based reports of morbidity, mortality, and health-seeking behaviours in four Monrovia communities during the West African Ebola epidemic. Global Public Health, 13(5), 528–544. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2016.1208262.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Milland, M., & Bolkan, H. A. (2015). Enhancing access to emergency obstetric care through surgical task shifting in Sierra Leone: Confrontation with Ebola during recovery from civil war. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 94(1), 5–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.12540.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Practicing Midwife. (2014). Gains in maternal health being wiped out by Ebola. Practicing Midwife, 17(11), 6.Google Scholar
- Risso-Gill, I., & Finnegan, F. (2015). Children’s Ebola recovery assessment: Sierra Leone. Save the Children Fund, World Vision International, Plan International, UNICEF.Google Scholar
- Sadaphal, S., Leigh, J., Toole, M., Hansch, S., & Cook, G. (2018). Evaluation of the USAID/OFDA Ebola virus disease outbreak response in West Africa 2014–2016. Objective 1: Effectiveness of the response. Evaluation report to USAID/OFDA. Vienna, VAGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz, D. A. (2013). Challenges in improvement of perinatal health in developing nations—Role of perinatal pathology. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 137(6), 742–746. https://doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2012-0089-ED. Retrieved March 31, 2018, from http://www.archivesofpathology.org/doi/pdf/10.5858/arpa.2012-0089-ED.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz, D. A. (2017). Viral infection, proliferation and hyperplasia of Hofbauer cells and absence of inflammation characterize the placental pathology of fetuses with congenital Zika virus infection. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 295(6), 1361–1368. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00404-017-4361-5. Retrieved March 30, 2018, from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00404-017-4361-5/fulltext.html.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Sierra Leone Ministry of Social Welfare, Gender and Children’s Affairs, UN Women Sierra Leone, OXFAM Sierra Leone, and Statistics Sierra Leone. (2014). Report of the multisector impact assessment of gender dimensions of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Sierra Leone.Google Scholar