Gait Transition Between Simple and Complex Locomotion in Humanoid Robots

  • Sidhdharthkumar Vaghani
  • Yuxiang Pan
  • Fred Hamker
  • John NassourEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10994)


In this paper, we present the gait transition between rhythmic and non-rhythmic behaviors during walking of a humanoid robot Nao. In biological studies, two kinds of locomotion were observed in cat during walking on a flat terrain and on a ladder (simple and complex walking). Both behaviors were obtained on the robot thanks to the multi-layers multi-patterns central pattern generator model. We generate the rhythmic behavior from the non-rhythmic one based on the frequency of interaction between the robot feet and the ground surface during the complex locomotion. Although the complex locomotion requires a sequence of descending control signals to drive each robot step, the simple one requires only a triggering signal to generate the periodic movement. The overall system behavior fits with the biological findings in cat locomotion.


  1. 1.
    Shik, M.L., Orlovsky, G.N.: Neurophysiology of locomotor automatism. Physiol. Rev. 56(3), 465–501 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Whelan, P.J.: Control of locomotion in the decerebrate cat. Prog. Neurobiol. 49(5), 481–515 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Graham-Brown, T.: The intrinsic factors in the act of progression in the mammal. Proc. Royal Soc. B Biol. Sci. 84(572), 308–319 (1911)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schaal, S., Sternad, D., Osu, R., Kawato, M.: Rhythmic arm movement is not discrete. Nature Neurosci. 7(10), 1136–1143 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lefevre, P., Ronsse, R., Sternad, D.: A computational model for rhythmic and discrete movements in uni- and bimanual coordination. Neural Comput. 21(5), 1335–1370 (2009)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Manoonpong, P., Geng, T., Kulvicius, T., Porr, B., Wörgötter, F.: Adaptive, fast walking in a biped robot under neuronal control and learning. PLOS Comput. Biol. 3(7), 1–16 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ijspeert, A.J.: Central pattern generators for locomotion control in animals and robots: a review. Neural Netw. 21(4), 642–653 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nassour, J., Hénaff, P., Ben Ouezdou, F., Cheng, G.: A study of adaptive locomotive behaviors of a biped robot: patterns generation and classification. In: Doncieux, S., Girard, B., Guillot, A., Hallam, J., Meyer, J.-A., Mouret, J.-B. (eds.) SAB 2010. LNCS, vol. 6226, pp. 313–324. Springer, Heidelberg (2010). Scholar
  9. 9.
    Owaki, D., Ishiguro, A.: A quadruped robot exhibiting spontaneous gait transitions from walking to trotting to galloping. Sci. Rep. 7 (2017). Article no. 277Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Danner, S.M., Shevtsova, N.A., Frigon, A., Rybak, I.A.: Computational modeling of spinal circuits controlling limb coordination and gaits in quadrupeds. eLife 6, e31050 (2017)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ijspeert, A.J., Crespi, A., Ryczko, D., Cabelguen, J.M.: From swimming to walking with a salamander robot driven by a spinal cord model. Science 315(5817), 1416–1420 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marlinski, V., Nilaweera, W.U., Zelenin, P.V., Sirota, M.G., Beloozerova, I.N.: Signals from the ventrolateral thalamus to the motor cortex during locomotion. J. Neuro Physiol. 107(1), 455–472 (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rowat, P.F., Selverston, A.I.: Learning algorithms for oscillatory networks with gap junctions and membrane currents. Network 2(1), 17–41 (1991)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    McCrea, D.A., Rybak, I.A.: Organization of mammalian locomotor rhythm and pattern generation. Brain Res. Rev. 57(1), 134–146 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vukobratovic, M., Borovac, B.: Zero-moment point – thirty five years of its life. Int. J. Humanoid Rob. 1(1), 157–173 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sidhdharthkumar Vaghani
    • 1
  • Yuxiang Pan
    • 1
  • Fred Hamker
    • 1
  • John Nassour
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Chemnitz University of TechnologyChemnitzGermany

Personalised recommendations