Gravitational Waves from Merging Binary Neutron-Star Systems

  • Tanja Hinderer
  • Luciano RezzollaEmail author
  • Luca Baiotti
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 457)


The merger of binary neutron-star systems is among the scientifically richest events in the universe: it involves extremes of matter and gravity, copious emission of gravitational waves, complex microphysics, and electromagnetic processes that can lead to astrophysical signatures observable at the largest redshifts. We review here the recent progress in understanding the gravitational-wave signal emitted in this process, focussing in particular on its properties during the inspiral and then after the merger.



It is a pleasure to thank Kentaro Takami and the relativistic-astrophysics group in Frankfurt for their help and input in preparing this Chapter.

Partial support has come from “NewCompStar”, COST Action MP1304, from the LOEWE-Program in HIC for FAIR, the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under grant agreement No. 671698 (call FETHPC-1–2014, project ExaHyPE), from the ERC Synergy Grant “BlackHoleCam - Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes” (Grant 610058), from JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research(C) No. 18K036220, from the International Centre for Theoretical Sciences Code: ICTS/Prog-GWS/2017/07, and from the Excellence Initiative at Radboud University Nijmegen.


  1. Abbott, B.P., Abbott, R., Abbott, T.D., Abernathy, M.R., Acernese, F., Ackley, K., Adams, C., Adams, T., Addesso, P., Adhikari, R.X., et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241103 (2016). arXiv:1606.04855 [gr-qc] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbott, B.P., et al. (Virgo, LIGO Scientific): Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 161101 (2017). arXiv:1710.05832 [gr-qc]
  3. Abbott, B.P., et al. (Virgo, LIGO Scientific): (2018a). arXiv:1805.11581
  4. Abbott, B.P., et al. (Virgo, LIGO Scientific): (2018b). arXiv:1805.11579
  5. Advanced LIGO Anticipated Sensitivity Curves, LIGO Document No. T0900288-v3 (2009)Google Scholar
  6. Agathos, M., Meidam, J., Del Pozzo, W., Li, T.G.F., Tompitak, M., Veitch, J., Vitale, S., Van Den Broeck, C.: Phys. Rev. D 92, 023012 (2015). arXiv:1503.05405 [gr-qc]
  7. Ajith, P., et al.: Class. Quantum Grav. 24, S689 (2007). arXiv:0704.3764
  8. Ajith, P., et al.: Phys. Re. D 77, 104017 (2008). arXiv:0710.2335
  9. Akmal, A., Pandharipande, V.R., Ravenhall, D.G.: Phys. Rev. C 58, 1804 (1998). arXiv:hep-ph/9804388 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alford, M., Braby, M., Paris, M., Reddy, S.: Astrophys. J. 629, 969 (2005). nucl-th/0411016 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Alford, M.G., Bovard, L., Hanauske, M., Rezzolla, L., Schwenzer, K.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 041101 (2018). arXiv:1707.09475 [gr-qc] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Anderson, M., Hirschmann, E.W., Lehner, L., Liebling, S.L., Motl, P.M., Neilsen, D., Palenzuela, C., Tohline, J.E.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 191101 (2008). arXiv:0801.4387 [gr-qc] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Andersson, N., Ferrari, V., Jones, D.I., Kokkotas, K.D., Krishnan, B., Read, J.S., Rezzolla, L., Zink, B.: Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 43, 409 (2011). arXiv:0912.0384 [astro-ph.SR] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Antoniadis, J., Freire, P.C.C., Wex, N., Tauris, T.M., Lynch, R.S., van Kerkwijk, M.H., Kramer, M., Bassa, C., Dhillon, V.S., Driebe, T., Hessels, J.W.T., Kaspi, V.M., Kondratiev, V.I., Langer, N., Marsh, T.R., McLaughlin, M.A., Pennucci, T.T., Ransom, S.M., Stairs, I.H., van Leeuwen, J., Verbiest, J.P.W., Whelan, D.G.: Science 340, 448 (2013). arXiv:1304.6875 [astro-ph.HE] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Aso, Y., Michimura, Y., Somiya, K., Ando, M., Miyakawa, O., Sekiguchi, T., Tatsumi, D., Yamamoto, H.: Phys. Rev. D 88, 043007 (2013). arXiv:1306.6747 [gr-qc]
  16. Baiotti, L., de Pietri, R., Manca, G.M., Rezzolla, L.: Phys. Rev. D 75, 044023 (2007). astro-ph/0609473
  17. Baiotti, L., Giacomazzo, B., Rezzolla, L.: Phys. Rev. D 78, 084033 (2008). arXiv:0804.0594 [gr-qc]
  18. Baiotti, L., Damour, T., Giacomazzo, B., Nagar, A., Rezzolla, L.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 261101 (2010). arXiv:1009.0521 [gr-qc] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Balbinski, E.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 216, 897 (1985)ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Banihashemi, B., Vines, J. (2018). arXiv:1805.07266
  21. Bauswein, A., Janka, H.-T., Oechslin, R., Pagliara, G., Sagert, I., Schaffner-Bielich, J., Hohle, M.M., Neuhäuser, R.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 011101 (2009). arXiv:0812.4248 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bauswein, A., Oechslin, R., Janka, H.-T.: Phys. Rev. D 81, 024012 (2010). arXiv:0910.5169 [astro-ph.SR]
  23. Bauswein, A., Janka, H.-T., Hebeler, K., Schwenk, A.: Phys. Rev. D 86, 063001 (2012). arXiv:1204.1888 [astro-ph.SR]
  24. Bauswein, A., Stergioulas, N., Janka, H.-T.: Phys. Rev. D 90, 023002 (2014). arXiv:1403.5301 [astro-ph.SR]
  25. Bauswein, A., Stergioulas, N., Janka, H.-T.: Eur. Phys. J. A 52, 56 (2016). arXiv:1508.05493 [astro-ph.HE]
  26. Benhar, O., Ferrari, V., Gualtieri, L.: Phys. Rev. D 70, 124015 (2004). arXiv:astro-ph/0407529
  27. Bernuzzi, S., Nagar, A., Thierfelder, M., Brügmann, B.: Phys. Rev. D 86, 044030 (2012). arXiv:1205.3403 [gr-qc]
  28. Bernuzzi, S., Nagar, A., Balmelli, S., Dietrich, T., Ujevic, M.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 201101 (2014a). arXiv:1402.6244 [gr-qc] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bernuzzi, S., Dietrich, T., Tichy, W., Brügmann, B.: Phys. Rev. D 89, 104021 (2014b). arXiv:1311.4443 [gr-qc]
  30. Bernuzzi, S., Radice, D., Ott, C.D., Roberts, L.F., Moesta, P., Galeazzi, F.: Phys. Rev. D 94, 024023 (2016). arXiv:1512.06397 [gr-qc]
  31. Berti, E., Iyer, S., Will, C.M.: Phys. Rev. D 77, 024019 (2008). arXiv:0709.2589
  32. Bhowmick, B., Bhattacharya, M., Bhattacharyya, A., Gangopadhyay, G.: Phys. Rev. C89, 065806 (2014). arXiv:1403.0341 [nucl-th] ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Blanchet, L.: Living Rev. Relativ. 9, 4 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bodo, G., Massaglia, S., Ferrari, A., Trussoni, E.: Astron. Astrophys. 283, 655 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Bose, S., Chakravarti, K., Rezzolla, L., Sathyaprakash, B.S., Takami, K.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 031102 (2018). arXiv:1705.10850 [gr-qc] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bovard, L., Martin, D., Guercilena, F., Arcones, A., Rezzolla, L., Korobkin, O.: Phys. Rev. D 96, 124005 (2017). arXiv:1709.09630 [gr-qc]
  37. Buonanno, A., Iyer, B., Ochsner, E., Pan, Y., Sathyaprakash, B.S.: Phys. Rev. D80, 084043 (2009). arXiv:0907.0700 [gr-qc] ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Camarda, K.D., Anninos, P., Fragile, P.C., Font, J.A.: Astrophys. J. 707, 1610 (2009). arXiv:0911.0670 [astro-ph.SR] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cardoso, V., Franzin, E., Maselli, A., Pani, P., Raposo, G.: Phys. Rev. D95, 084014 (2017) [Addendum: Phys. Rev. D95(8), 089901 (2017)]. arXiv:1701.01116 [gr-qc]
  40. Carriere, J., Horowitz, C.J., Piekarewicz, J.: Astrophys. J. 593, 463 (2003). nucl-th/0211015 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Centrella, J.M., New, K.C.B., Lowe, L.L., Brown, J.D.: Astrophys. J. 550, L193 (2001). astro-ph/0010574 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chakrabarti, S., Delsate, T., Steinhoff, J.: Phys. Rev. D88, 084038 (2013a). arXiv:1306.5820 [gr-qc] ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Chakrabarti, S., Delsate, T., Steinhoff, J. (2013b). arXiv:1304.2228
  44. Chakrabarti, S., Delsate, T., Gürlebeck, N., Steinhoff, J.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 201102 (2014). arXiv:1311.6509 [gr-qc] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Chandrasekhar, S.: Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability. Dover Edition, New York (1981)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  46. Chatziioannou, K., Yagi, K., Klein, A., Cornish, N., Yunes, N.: Phys. Rev. D92, 104008 (2015). arXiv:1508.02062 [gr-qc] ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Chatziioannou, K., Clark, J.A., Bauswein, A., Millhouse, M., Littenberg, T.B., Cornish, N.: Phys. Rev. D 96, 124035 (2017). arXiv:1711.00040 [gr-qc]
  48. Clark, J., Bauswein, A., Cadonati, L., Janka, H.-T., Pankow, C., Stergioulas, N.: Phys. Rev. D 90, 062004 (2014). arXiv:1406.5444 [astro-ph.HE]
  49. Corvino, G., Rezzolla, L., Bernuzzi, S., De Pietri, R., Giacomazzo, B.: Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 114104 (2010). arXiv:1001.5281 [gr-qc] ADSMathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Cutler, C., Apostolatos, T.A., Bildsten, L., Finn, L.S., Flanagan, E.E., Kennefick, D., Markovic, D.M., Ori, A., Poisson, E., Sussman, G.J., Thorne, K.S.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2984 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. De Pietri, R., Feo, A., Maione, F., Löffler, F.: Phys. Rev. D 93, 064047 (2016). arXiv:1509.08804 [gr-qc]
  52. Del Pozzo, W., Li, T.G.F., Agathos, M., Van Den Broeck, C., Vitale, S.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 071101 (2013). arXiv:1307.8338 [gr-qc] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Demorest, P.B., Pennucci, T., Ransom, S.M., Roberts, M.S.E., Hessels, J.W.T.: Nature 467, 1081 (2010). arXiv:1010.5788 [astro-ph.HE] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dessart, L., Ott, C.D., Burrows, A., Rosswog, S., Livne, E.: Astrophys. J. 690, 1681 (2009). arXiv:0806.4380 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dietrich, T., Moldenhauer, N., Johnson-McDaniel, N.K., Bernuzzi, S., Markakis, C.M., Brügmann, B., Tichy, W.: Phys. Rev. D 92, 124007 (2015a). arXiv:1507.07100 [gr-qc]
  56. Dietrich, T., Bernuzzi, S., Ujevic, M., Brügmann, B.: Phys. Rev. D 91, 124041 (2015b). arXiv:1504.01266 [gr-qc]
  57. Dietrich, T., Bernuzzi, S., Tichy, W. (2017). arXiv:1706.02969 [gr-qc]
  58. Dietrich, T., et al. (2018). arXiv:1804.02235
  59. Dolan, S.R., Nolan, P., Ottewill, A.C., Warburton, N., Wardell, B.: Phys. Rev. D 91, 023009 (2015). arXiv:1406.4890 [gr-qc]
  60. Doneva, D.D., Yazadjiev, S.S., Stergioulas, N., Kokkotas, K.D.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 781, L6 (2014). arXiv:1310.7436 [gr-qc] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Doneva, D.D., Kokkotas, K.D., Pnigouras, P.: Phys. Rev. D 92, 104040 (2015). arXiv:1510.00673 [gr-qc]
  62. East, W.E., Paschalidis, V., Pretorius, F., Shapiro, S.L.: Phys. Rev. D 93, 024011 (2016). arXiv:1511.01093 [astro-ph.HE]
  63. Endrizzi, A., Ciolfi, R., Giacomazzo, B., Kastaun, W., Kawamura, T. (2016). arXiv:1604.03445 [astro-ph.HE]
  64. Fattoyev, F.J., Carvajal, J., Newton, W.G., Li, B.-A.: Phys. Rev. C87, 015806 (2013). arXiv:1210.3402 [nucl-th] ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. Fernández, R., Foucart, F., Kasen, D., Lippuner, J., Desai, D., Roberts, L.F.: Class. Quant. Grav. 34, 154001 (2017). arXiv:1612.04829 [astro-ph.HE] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ferrari, V., Gualtieri, L., Pannarale, F.: Phys. Rev. D 81, 064026 (2010). arXiv:0912.3692 [gr-qc]
  67. Flanagan, E.E.: Phys. Rev. D 58, 124030 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Flanagan, É.É., Hinderer, T.: Phys. Rev. D 77, 021502 (2008). arXiv:0709.1915
  69. Foucart, F., Deaton, M.B., Duez, M.D., O’Connor, E., Ott, C.D., Haas, R., Kidder, L.E., Pfeiffer, H.P., Scheel, M.A., Szilagyi, B.: Phys. Rev. D 90, 024026 (2014). arXiv:1405.1121 [astro-ph.HE]
  70. Foucart, F., Haas, R., Duez, M.D., O’Connor, E., Ott, C.D., Roberts, L., Kidder, L.E., Lippuner, J., Pfeiffer, H.P., Scheel, M.A.: Phys. Rev. D 93, 044019 (2016). arXiv:1510.06398 [astro-ph.HE]
  71. Franci, L., De Pietri, R., Dionysopoulou, K., Rezzolla, L.: Phys. Rev. D 88, 104028 (2013). arXiv:1308.3989 [gr-qc]
  72. Fujibayashi, S., Sekiguchi, Y., Kiuchi, K., Shibata, M.: ArXiv e-prints (2017). arXiv:1703.10191 [astro-ph.HE]
  73. Gagnon-Bischoff, J., Green, S.R., Landry, P., Ortiz, N.: Phys. Rev. D97(6), 064042 (2018). arXiv:1711.05694
  74. Giacomazzo, B., Rezzolla, L., Baiotti, L.: Phys. Rev. D 83, 044014 (2011). arXiv:1009.2468 [gr-qc]
  75. Gold, R., Bernuzzi, S., Thierfelder, M., Brugmann, B., Pretorius, F.: Phys. Rev. D86, 121501 (2012). arXiv:1109.5128 [gr-qc] ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. Gualtieri, L., Kantor, E.M., Gusakov, M.E., Chugunov, A.I.: Phys. Rev. D90, 024010 (2014). arXiv:1404.7512 [gr-qc] ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. Haensel, P., Zdunik, J.L., Schaefer, R.: Astron. Astrophys. 160, 121 (1986)ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. Hanauske, M., Takami, K., Bovard, L., Rezzolla, L., Font, J.A., Galeazzi, F., Stöcker, H.: ArXiv e-prints (2016). arXiv:1611.07152 [gr-qc]
  79. Hartle, J.B.: Astrophys. J. 150, 1005 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hartmann, T., Soffel, M.H., Kioustelidis, T.: Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astron. 60, 139 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hempel, M., Schaffner-Bielich, J.: Nucl. Phys. A 837, 210 (2010). arXiv:0911.4073 [nucl-th]
  82. Hinderer, T., Lackey, B.D., Lang, R.N., Read, J.S.: Phys. Rev. D 81, 123016 (2010). arXiv:0911.3535 [astro-ph.HE]
  83. Hinderer, T., Taracchini, A., Foucart, F., Buonanno, A., Steinhoff, J., Duez, M., Kidder, L.E., Pfeiffer, H.P., Scheel, M.A., Szilagyi, B., Hotokezaka, K., Kyutoku, K., Shibata, M., Carpenter, C.W. (2016). arXiv:1602.00599 [gr-qc]
  84. Hotokezaka, K., Kyutoku, K., Okawa, H., Shibata, M., Kiuchi, K.: Phys. Rev. D 83, 124008 (2011). arXiv:1105.4370 [astro-ph.HE]
  85. Hotokezaka, K., Kiuchi, K., Kyutoku, K., Muranushi, T., Sekiguchi, Y.-i., Shibata, M., Taniguchi, K.: Phys. Rev. D 88, 044026 (2013). arXiv:1307.5888 [astro-ph.HE]
  86. Ivanova, N., Justham, S., Chen, X., De Marco, O., Fryer, C.L., Gaburov, E., Ge, H., Glebbeek, E., Han, Z., Li, X.-D., Lu, G., Marsh, T., Podsiadlowski, P., Potter, A., Soker, N., Taam, R., Tauris, T.M., van den Heuvel, E.P.J., Webbink, R.F.: Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 21, 59 (2013). arXiv:1209.4302 [astro-ph.HE] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Jimenez-Forteza, X., Abdelsalhin, T., Pani, P., Gualtieri, L. (2018). arXiv:1807.08016Google Scholar
  88. Just, O., Bauswein, A., Pulpillo, R.A., Goriely, S., Janka, H.-T.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 448, 541 (2015). arXiv:1406.2687 [astro-ph.SR] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kaplan, J.D., Ott, C.D., O’Connor, E.P., Kiuchi, K., Roberts, L., Duez, M.: Astrophys. J. 790, 19 (2014). arXiv:1306.4034 [astro-ph.HE] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kastaun, W., Galeazzi, F., Alic, D., Rezzolla, L., Font, J.A.: Phys. Rev. D 88, 021501 (2013). arXiv:1301.7348 [gr-qc]
  91. Kawaguchi, K., Kyutoku, K., Nakano, H., Shibata, M. (2017). arXiv:1709.02754 [astro-ph.HE]
  92. Kawaguchi, K., Kiuchi, K., Kyutoku, K., Sekiguchi, Y., Shibata, M., Taniguchi, K.: Phys. Rev. D97(4), 044044 (2018). arXiv:1802.06518
  93. Khan, S., Husa, S., Hannam, M., Ohme, F., Puerrer, M., Jimenez Forteza, X., Bohe, A.: Phys. Rev. D93, 044007 (2016). arXiv:1508.07253 [gr-qc] ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. Kiuchi, K., Sekiguchi, Y., Shibata, M., Taniguchi, K.: Phys. Rev. D 80, 064037 (2009). arXiv:0904.4551 [gr-qc]
  95. Kiuchi, K., Kyutoku, K., Shibata, M.: Phys. Rev. D 86, 064008 (2012a). arXiv:1207.6444 [astro-ph.HE]
  96. Kiuchi, K., Sekiguchi, Y., Kyutoku, K., Shibata, M.: In: Pogorelov, N.V., Font, J.A., Audit, E., Zank, G.P. (eds.) Numerical Modeling of Space Plasma Slows (ASTRONUM 2011), Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 459, p. 85 (2012c)Google Scholar
  97. Kiuchi, K., Kyutoku, K., Sekiguchi, Y., Shibata, M., Wada, T.: Phys. Rev. D 90, 041502 (2014). arXiv:1407.2660 [astro-ph.HE]
  98. Kiuchi, K., Kyutoku, K., Sekiguchi, Y., Shibata, M. (2017). arXiv:1710.01311 [astro-ph.HE]
  99. Kiziltan, B., Kottas, A., De Yoreo, M., Thorsett, S.E.: Astrophys. J. 778, 66 (2013). arXiv:1011.4291 [astro-ph.GA] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kokkotas, K.D., Schaefer, G.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 275, 301 (1995). arXiv:gr-qc/9502034 [gr-qc] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kopal, Z.: Dynamics of Close Binary Systems. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht (1978)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kramer, M., Lyne, A., Burgay, M., Possenti, A., Manchester, R., Camilo, F., McLaughlin, M., Lorimer, D., D’Amico, N., Joshi, B., Reynolds, J., Freire, P.: In: Rasio, F.A., Stairs, I.H. (eds.) Binary Pulsars. PSAP, Chicago (2004)Google Scholar
  103. Kyutoku, K., Shibata, M., Taniguchi, K.: Phys. Rev. D 82, 044049 (2010). arXiv:1008.1460 [astro-ph.HE]
  104. Lackey, B.D., Kyutoku, K., Shibata, M., Brady, P.R., Friedman, J.L.: Phys. Rev. D 85, 044061 (2012). arXiv:1109.3402 [astro-ph.HE]
  105. Lackey, B.D., Kyutoku, K., Shibata, M., Brady, P.R., Friedman, J.L.: Phys. Rev. D 89, 043009 (2014). arXiv:1303.6298 [gr-qc]
  106. Lackey, B.D., Bernuzzi, S., Galley, C.R., Meidam, J., Van Den Broeck, C.: Phys. Rev. D95, 104036 (2017). arXiv:1610.04742 [gr-qc] ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. Lai, D., Rasio, F.A., Shapiro, S.L.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 88, 205 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Landry, P. (2018). arXiv:1805.01882
  109. Lattimer, J.M., Prakash, M.: Astrophys. J. 550, 426 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lattimer, J.M., Pethick, C.J., Prakash, M., Haensel, P.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2701 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lehner, L., Liebling, S.L., Palenzuela, C., Motl, P.: ArXiv e-prints (2016). arXiv:1605.02369 [gr-qc]
  112. Lindblom, L., Indik, N.M.: Phys. Rev. D89, 064003 (2014) [Erratum: Phys. Rev. D93(12), 129903 (2016)]. arXiv:1310.0803 [astro-ph.HE]
  113. Littenberg, T.B., Cornish, N.J.: Phys. Rev. D 91, 084034 (2015). arXiv:1410.3852 [gr-qc]
  114. Lombardi, J.C., Rasio, F.A., Shapiro, S.L.: Phys. Rev. D 56, 3416 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Luyten, P.J.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 242, 447 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Maione, F., De Pietri, R., Feo, A., Löffler, F. (2016). arXiv:1605.03424 [gr-qc]
  117. Majumder, B., Yagi, K., Yunes, N.: Phys. Rev. D 92, 024020 (2015). arXiv:1504.02506 [gr-qc]
  118. Marchand, T., Bernard, L., Blanchet, L., Faye, G. (2017). arXiv:1707.09289 [gr-qc]
  119. Markakis, C., Read, J.S., Shibata, M., Uryu, K., Creighton, J.D.E., Friedman, J.L., Lackey, B.D.: J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 189, 012024 (2009). arXiv:1110.3759 [gr-qc] CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Martin, D., Perego, A., Arcones, A., Thielemann, F.-K., Korobkin, O., Rosswog, S.: Astrophys. J. 813, 2 (2015). arXiv:1506.05048 [astro-ph.SR] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Maselli, A., Gualtieri, L., Pannarale, F., Ferrari, V.: Phys. Rev. D 86, 044032 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Maselli, A., Cardoso, V., Ferrari, V., Gualtieri, L., Pani, P.: Phys. Rev. D 88, 023007 (2013a). arXiv:1304.2052 [gr-qc]
  123. Maselli, A., Pani, P., Cardoso, V., Abdelsalhin, T., Gualtieri, L., Ferrari, V.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 081101 (2018). arXiv:1703.10612 [gr-qc] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. McDermott, P.N., van Horn, H.M., Hansen, C.J., Buland, R.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 297, L37 (1985) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Messenger, C., Takami, K., Gossan, S., Rezzolla, L., Sathyaprakash, B.S.: Phys. Rev. X 4, 041004 (2014) Google Scholar
  126. Morsink, S.M., Leahy, D.A., Cadeau, C., Braga, J.: Astrophys. J. 663, 1244 (2007). astro-ph/0703123 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Muhlberger, C.D., Nouri, F.H., Duez, M.D., Foucart, F., Kidder, L.E., Ott, C.D., Scheel, M.A., Szilágyi, B., Teukolsky, S.A.: Phys. Rev. D 90, 104014 (2014). arXiv:1405.2144 [astro-ph.HE]
  128. Murguia-Berthier, A., Montes, G., Ramirez-Ruiz, E., De Colle, F., Lee, W.H.: Astrophys. J. 788, L8 (2014). arXiv:1404.0383 [astro-ph.HE] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Murguia-Berthier, A., Ramirez-Ruiz, E., Montes, G., De Colle, F., Rezzolla, L., Rosswog, S., Takami, K., Perego, A., Lee, W.H.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 835, L34 (2017). arXiv:1609.04828 [astro-ph.HE] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Nagakura, H., Hotokezaka, K., Sekiguchi, Y., Shibata, M., Ioka, K.: Astrophys. J. 784, L28 (2014). arXiv:1403.0956 [astro-ph.HE] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Nagar, A., Riemenschneider, G., Pratten, G.: Phys. Rev. D96, 084045 (2017). arXiv:1703.06814 [gr-qc] ADSGoogle Scholar
  132. Nagar, A., et al. (2018). arXiv:1806.01772
  133. Nakamura, T., Oohara, K.: Numerical Astrophysics 1998 (NAP98) – Proceedings (1998). gr-qc/9812054
  134. Neilsen, D.W., Liebling, S.L., Anderson, M., Lehner, L., O’Connor, E., Palenzuela, C.: Phys. Rev. D 89, 104029 (2014). arXiv:1403.3680 [gr-qc]
  135. Nolan, P., Kavanagh, C., Dolan, S.R., Ottewill, A.C., Warburton, N., Wardell, B.: Phys. Rev. D92, 123008 (2015). arXiv:1505.04447 [gr-qc] ADSGoogle Scholar
  136. Oohara, K.-i., Nakamura, T.: Black Holes and Gravitational Waves: New Eyes in the 21st Century. Proceedings, 9th Yukawa International Seminar, Kyoto, Japan, June 28-July 2, 1999. Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 136, 270 (1999). arXiv:astro-ph/9912085 [astro-ph]
  137. Oppenheimer, J.R., Volkoff, G.: Phys. Rev. 55, 374 (1939)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Osłowski, S., Bulik, T., Gondek-Rosińska, D., Belczyński, K.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 413, 461 (2011). arXiv:0903.3538 [astro-ph.GA] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Pani, P., Gualtieri, L., Maselli, A., Ferrari, V.: Phys. Rev. D92, 024010 (2015a). arXiv:1503.07365 [gr-qc] ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. Pannarale, F., Rezzolla, L., Ohme, F., Read, J.S.: Phys. Rev. D 84, 104017 (2011). arXiv:1103.3526 [astro-ph.HE]
  141. Pannarale, F., Berti, E., Kyutoku, K., Lackey, B.D., Shibata, M.: Phys. Rev. D92, 081504 (2015). arXiv:1509.06209 [gr-qc] ADSGoogle Scholar
  142. Paschalidis, V., Etienne, Z.B., Shapiro, S.L.: Phys. Rev. D 86, 064032 (2012). arXiv:1208.5487 [astro-ph.HE]
  143. Paschalidis, V., East, W.E., Pretorius, F., Shapiro, S.L.: Phys. Rev. D 92, 121502 (2015b). arXiv:1510.03432 [astro-ph.HE]
  144. Penner, A.J., Andersson, N., Samuelsson, L., Hawke, I., Jones, D.I.: Phys. Rev. D84, 103006 (2011). arXiv:1107.0669 [astro-ph.SR] ADSGoogle Scholar
  145. Perego, A., Rosswog, S., Cabezón, R.M., Korobkin, O., Käppeli, R., Arcones, A., Liebendörfer, M.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 443, 3134 (2014). arXiv:1405.6730 [astro-ph.HE] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Poisson, E., Will, C.M.: Gravity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2014)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Prakash, M., Bombaci, I., Prakash, M., Ellis, P.J., Lattimer, J.M., Knorren, R.: Phys. Rep. 280, 1 (1997). arXiv:nucl-th/9603042 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Radice, D., Bernuzzi, S., Ott, C.D. (2016). arXiv:1603.05726 [gr-qc]
  149. Radice, D., Bernuzzi, S., Del Pozzo, W., Roberts, L.F., Ott, C.D.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 842, L10 (2017). arXiv:1612.06429 [astro-ph.HE] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Read, J.S., Lackey, B.D., Owen, B.J., Friedman, J.L.: Phys. Rev. D 79, 124032 (2009). arXiv:0812.2163
  151. Read, J.S., Baiotti, L., Creighton, J.D.E., Friedman, J.L., Giacomazzo, B., Kyutoku, K., Markakis, C., Rezzolla, L., Shibata, M., Taniguchi, K.: Phys. Rev. D 88, 044042 (2013). arXiv:1306.4065 [gr-qc]
  152. Regge, T., Wheeler, J.: Phys. Rev. 108, 1063 (1957)ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Rembiasz, T., Guilet, J., Obergaulinger, M., Cerdá -Durán, P., Aloy, M.A., Müller, E.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 460, 3316 (2016). arXiv:1603.00466 [astro-ph.SR] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Rezzolla, L., Zanotti, O.: Relativistic Hydrodynamics. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2013)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rezzolla, L., Baiotti, L., Giacomazzo, B., Link, D., Font, J.A.: Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 114105 (2010). arXiv:1001.3074 [gr-qc] ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rezzolla, L., Giacomazzo, B., Baiotti, L., Granot, J., Kouveliotou, C., Aloy, M.A.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 732, L6 (2011). arXiv:1101.4298 [astro-ph.HE] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rikovska-Stone, J., Guichon, P.A., Matevosyan, H.H., Thomas, A.W.: Nucl. Phys. A792, 341 (2007). arXiv:nucl-th/0611030 [nucl-th] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Ruiz, M., Shapiro, S.L., Tsokaros, A.: Phys. Rev. D 97, 021501 (2018). arXiv:1711.00473 [astro-ph.HE]
  159. Sathyaprakash, B.S., Schutz, B.F.: Living Rev. Relativ. 12, 2 (2009). arXiv:0903.0338 [gr-qc]
  160. Schnittman, J.D., Dal Canton, T., Camp, J., Tsang, D., Kelly, B.J.: Astrophys. J. 853, 123 (2018). arXiv:1704.07886 [astro-ph.HE] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Sekiguchi, Y., Kiuchi, K., Kyutoku, K., Shibata, M.: Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2012, 01A304 (2012). arXiv:1206.5927 [astro-ph.HE]
  162. Sekiguchi, Y., Kiuchi, K., Kyutoku, K., Shibata, M.: Phys. Rev. D 91, 064059 (2015). arXiv:1502.06660 [astro-ph.HE]
  163. Sennett, N., Hinderer, T., Steinhoff, J., Buonanno, A., Ossokine, S.: Phys. Rev. D96, 024002 (2017). arXiv:1704.08651 [gr-qc] ADSGoogle Scholar
  164. Shibata, M., Taniguchi, K., Uryū, K.: Phys. Rev. D 71, 084021 (2005). gr-qc/0503119
  165. Shibata, M., Taniguchi, K., Okawa, H., Buonanno, A.: Phys. Rev. D 89, 084005 (2014). arXiv:1310.0627 [gr-qc]
  166. Shibata, M., Fujibayashi, S., Hotokezaka, K., Kiuchi, K., Kyutoku, K.: Sekiguchi, Y., Tanaka, M.: Phys. Rev. D 96, 123012 (2017). arXiv:1710.07579 [astro-ph.HE]
  167. Steiner, A.W., Gandolfi, S., Fattoyev, F.J., Newton, W.G.: Phys. Rev. C91, 015804 (2015). arXiv:1403.7546 [nucl-th] ADSGoogle Scholar
  168. Steiner, A.W., Lattimer, J.M., Brown, E.F.: Eur. Phys. J. A 52, 18 (2016). arXiv:1510.07515 [astro-ph.HE]
  169. Steinhoff, J., Hinderer, T., Buonanno, A., Taracchini, A.: Phys. Rev. D94, 104028 (2016). arXiv:1608.01907 [gr-qc] ADSGoogle Scholar
  170. Stergioulas, N., Bauswein, A., Zagkouris, K., Janka, H.-T.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 418, 427 (2011). arXiv:1105.0368 [gr-qc] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Takami, K., Rezzolla, L., Baiotti, L.: Phys. Rev. D 91, 064001 (2015). arXiv:1412.3240 [gr-qc]
  172. Taranto, G., Baldo, M., Burgio, G.F.: Phys. Rev. C 87, 045803 (2013). arXiv:1302.6882 [nucl-th]
  173. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration: Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102 (2016). arXiv:1602.03837 [gr-qc]
  174. Thorne, K.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 52, 299 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Thorne, K.S.: Phys. Rev. D 58, 124031 (1998). gr-qc/9706057
  176. Thorne, K.S., Campolattaro, A.: Astrophys. J. 149, 591 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Tolman, R.C.: Phys. Rev. 55, 364 (1939)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Tsang, D., Read, J.S., Hinderer, T., Piro, A.L., Bondarescu, R.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 011102 (2012). arXiv:1110.0467 [astro-ph.HE] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Vines, J., Flanagan, E.E., Hinderer, T.: Phys. Rev. D 83, 084051 (2011a). arXiv:1101.1673 [gr-qc]
  180. Vines, J., Hinderer, T., Flanagan, É.É. (2011b). arXiv:1101.1673 [gr-qc]
  181. Wade, L., Creighton, J.D.E., Ochsner, E., Lackey, B.D., Farr, B.F., Littenberg, T.B., Raymond, V.: Phys. Rev. D 89, 103012 (2014). arXiv:1402.5156 [gr-qc]
  182. Watts, A.L., Andersson, N., Jones, D.I.: Astrophys. J. 618, L37 (2005). astro-ph/0309554 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Weissenborn, S., Sagert, I., Pagliara, G., Hempel, M., Schaffner-Bielich, J.: Astrophys. J. 740, L14 (2011). arXiv:1102.2869 [astro-ph.HE] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Wilson, J.R., Mathews, G.J.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4161 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Yagi, K., Yunes, N.: Science 341, 365 (2013a). arXiv:1302.4499 [gr-qc] ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Yagi, K., Kyutoku, K., Pappas, G., Yunes, N., Apostolatos, T.A.: Phys. Rev. D 89, 124013 (2014a). arXiv:1403.6243 [gr-qc]
  187. Yagi, K., Stein, L.C., Pappas, G., Yunes, N., Apostolatos, T.A.: Phys. Rev. D 90, 063010 (2014b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Yamamoto, T., Shibata, M., Taniguchi, K.: Phys. Rev. D 78, 064054 (2008). arXiv:0806.4007 [gr-qc]
  189. Yang, H., Paschalidis, V., Yagi, K., Lehner, L., Pretorius, F., Yunes, N.: Phys. Rev. D 97, 024049 (2018). arXiv:1707.00207 [gr-qc]
  190. Zahn, J.-P.: Astron. Astrophys. 4, 452 (1970)ADSGoogle Scholar
  191. Zahn, J.-P.: Astron. Astrophys. 57, 383 (1977)ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tanja Hinderer
    • 1
  • Luciano Rezzolla
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Luca Baiotti
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Astrophysics/IMAPPRadboud UniversityNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Institute for Theoretical PhysicsFrankfurtGermany
  3. 3.Frankfurt Institute for Advanced StudiesFrankfurtGermany
  4. 4.Graduate School of ScienceOsaka UniversityToyonakaJapan

Personalised recommendations