Advertisement

Conclusions

  • Leung Wing-Fai Email author
Chapter
Part of the Dynamics of Virtual Work book series (DVW)

Abstract

The conclusion sums up the argument for employing an intersectional approach as a central tool in understanding the effects of technological change on workers and entrepreneurs in Taiwan and its East Asian neighbour Hong Kong, against the backdrop of rapid industrial and social changes in recent decades. The intersecting characteristics of gender, age, ethnicity, class, family and national contexts explain how entrepreneurship is discursively constructed and practised by generations of Internet and digital producers, who are attracted to a neoliberal ideology based on individualism and entrepreneurialism. Digital entrepreneurship can be argued to be a form of virtual work and precarious labour, and this research project offers a distinctive analysis of how these new forms of work and labour conditions in the respective contexts—startups in East Asia, corporations in Silicon Valley, the multinational tech companies—acutely reflect the social stratifications that exist in the global digital economy.

References

  1. Agamben, Giorgio. Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  2. Appadurai, Arjun. “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy.” Theory, Culture & Society 7 (1990): 295–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arvidsson, Adam. “Working in the Digital Economy: An ‘Industrious’ Revolution?” Talk given at King’s College London, March 17, 2017.Google Scholar
  4. Bourdieu, Pierre. “The Forms of Capital.” In Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, edited by John G. Richardson, 241–58. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  5. Chow, Yiu Fai. “Hong Kong Creative Workers in Mainland China: The Aspirational, the Precarious, and the Ethical.” China Information 31, no. 1 (2017): 43–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chu, Yun-han. “State Structure and Economic Adjustment of the East Asian Newly Industrializing Countries.” International Organization 43, no. 4 (1989): 647–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Florida, Richard. “The Economic Geography of Talent.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 92, no. 4 (2002a): 743–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Florida, Richard. The Rise of the Creative Class. New York: Basic Books, 2002b.Google Scholar
  9. Gill, Rosalind. “Cool, Creative and Egalitarian? Exploring Gender in Project-Based New Media Work in Europe.” Information, Communication & Society 5, no. 1 (2002): 70–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gill, Rosalind. “Unspeakable Inequalities: Post Feminism, Entrepreneurial Subjectivity, and the Repudiation of Sexism among Cultural Workers.” Social Politics 21, no. 4 (2014): 509–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Harrison, Mark. “The Sunflower Movement in Taiwan.” April 18, 2014. http://www.thechinastory.org/2014/04/the-sunflower-movement-in-taiwan/.
  12. Kratke, Stefan. “‘Creative Cities’ and the Rise of the Dealer Class: A Critique of Richard Florida’s Approach to Urban Theory.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 34, no. 4 (2010): 835–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Leung, Wing-Fai. “The Strengths of Close Ties: Taiwanese Online Entrepreneurship, Gender and Intersectionality.” Information, Communication & Society 19, no. 8 (2016): 1046–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Leung, Wing-Fai, and Alberto Cossu. “Digital Entrepreneurship in Taiwan and Thailand: Embracing Precarity as a Personal Response to Political and Economic Change.” International Journal of Cultural Studies (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  15. Lin, Jian. “Be Creative for the State: Creative Workers in Chinese State-Owned Cultural Enterprises.” International Journal of Cultural Studies (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1177/1367877917750670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lu, Yu-hsia. “The Boss’s Wife and Taiwanese Small Family Business.” In Women’s Working Lives in East Asia, edited by Mary C. Brinton, 263–98. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
  17. Martinez Dy, Angela, Susan Marlow, and Lee Martin. “A Web of Opportunity or the Same Old Story? Women Digital Entrepreneurs and Intersectionality Theory.” Human Relations 70, no. 3 (2016): 286–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McRobbie, Angela. Be Creative. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2016.Google Scholar
  19. Ong, Aihwa. Neoliberalism as Exception: Mutations in Citizenship and Sovereignty. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Packer, George. “Change the World.” New Yorker Magazine, May 27, 2013. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2013/05/27/change-the-world.
  21. Pratt, Andy. “The Cultural Contradictions of the Creative City.” City, Culture and Society 2, no. 3 (2011): 123–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.King’s College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations