Advertisement

Violence and the Virtual: Right-wing, Anti-asylum Facebook Pages and the Fomenting of Political Violence

  • Steffen Krüger
Chapter
Part of the Studies in the Psychosocial book series (STIP)

Abstract

This article sheds light on the role of social media in the instigation of acts of violence. It identifies and interprets the major forms of interaction emerging from the interplay between page owners and users on German right-wing, anti-asylum Facebook pages, bringing to the fore these pages’ interactional dynamic. Mainly two forms of interaction are identified. Firstly, by condensing news reports about crimes committed by foreigners into a coherent vision of reality, users are to be awakened to this reality. Secondly, by incessantly pointing to the intolerableness of this reality, the users’ continued inactivity is turned into a moral issue that goes to the core of their identities.

References

  1. Aalberg, T., & de Vreese, C. H. (2017). Comprehending populist political communication. In T. Aalberg, F. Esser, C. Reinemann, J. Stromback, & C. H. de Vreese (Eds.), Populist political communication in Europe (pp. 3–11) London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed, S. (2014). The cultural politics of emotion (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Amadeu-Antonio Foundation. (2016). Hetze gegen Flüchtlinge in Sozialen Medien – Handlungsempfehlungen. Berlin: Amadeu-Antonio Stiftung.Google Scholar
  4. Amjahid, M., Fuchs, C., Guinan-Bank, V., Kunze, A., Lebert, S., Mondial, S., … Rieth, S. (2016, June 28). Was geschah wirklich? Die Silvesternacht von Köln. Zeitmagazin. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://www.zeit.de/zeit-magazin/2016/27/silvesternacht-koeln-fluechtlingsdebatte-aufklaerung.
  5. Berntzen, L. E., & Weisskircher, M. (2016). Anti-Islamic PEGIDA beyond Germany: Explaining differences in mobilisation. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 37(6), 556–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bleich, H. (2015, December 11). Rassisten in der Filterblase – ‘Hate Speech’ auf sozialen Plattformen und was dagegen hilft. c’t – Magazin für Computer und Technik. Retrieved October 30, 2016, from http://www.heise.de/ct/ausgabe/2015-27-Hate-Speech-auf-sozialen-Plattformen-und-was-dagegen-hilft-3032127.html.
  7. Bown, A., & Bristow, D. (2013). Why are animals funny? Everyday analysis from the EDA collective. Winchester, UK and Washington, DC: Zero Books.Google Scholar
  8. boyd, d. (2014). It’s complicated: The social lives of networked teens. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Cantor, J. (2003). Media violence and its effect on aggression: Assessing the scientific evidence. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 80(2), 468–470.Google Scholar
  10. Chodorow, N. (2012). Individualising gender and sexuality: Theory and practice. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Colleoni, E., Rozza, A., & Arvidsson, A. (2014). Echo chamber or public sphere? Predicting political orientation and measuring political homophily in Twitter using big data. Journal of Communication, 64(2), 317–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Decker, O., & Brähler, E. (2016). Autoritäre Dynamiken: Ergebnisse der bisherigen ‘Mitte’-Studien und Fragestellung. In O. Decker, J. Kiess, & E. Brähler (Eds.), Die enthemmte Mitte. Autoritäre und rechtsextreme Einstellung in Deutschland (pp. 11–22). Giessen: Psychosozial.Google Scholar
  13. Decker, O., Kiess, J., & Brähler, E. (Eds.). (2016a). Die enthemmte Mitte. Autoritäre und rechtsextreme Einstellung in Deutschland. Giessen: Psychosozial.Google Scholar
  14. Decker, O., Kiess, J., Eggers, E., & Brähler, E. (2016b). Die ‘Mitte’-Studie 2016: Methode, Ergebnisse und Langzeitverlauf. In O. Decker, J. Kiess, & Brähler, E. (Eds.), Die enthemmte Mitte. Autoritäre und rechtsextreme Einstellung in Deutschland (pp. 23–66) Giessen: Psychosozial.Google Scholar
  15. Giesler, M. (2016, April 12). Wie die Rechten ungestört auf Facebook wüten. bento. Retrieved October 30, 2016, from http://www.bento.de/politik/nein-zum-heim-wie-die-rechten-auf-facebook-agieren-105078/.
  16. Hamilton, K., Karahalios, K., Eslami, M., & Sandvig, C. (2014, April). A path to understanding the effects of algorithm awareness. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems – Proceedings (pp. 631–640). ACM.Google Scholar
  17. Krüger, S. (2017). Barbarous hordes, brutal elites: The traumatic structure of right-wing populism. e-flux Journal, 83. Retrieved April 3, 2018, from http://www.e-flux.com/journal/83/142185/barbarous-hordes-brutal-elites-the-traumatic-structure-of-right-wing-populism/.
  18. Laplanche, J., & Pontalis, J.-B. (1973). The language of psychoanalysis. London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.Google Scholar
  19. Lorenzer, A. (1970). Sprachzerstörung und Rekonstruktion. Vorarbeiten zu einer Metatheorie der Psychoanalyse. Frankfurt/M: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  20. Lorenzer, A. (1977). Sprachspiel und Interaktionsformen. Vorträge und Aufsätze zu Psychoanalyse, Sprache und Praxis. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  21. Lorenzer, A. (1986). Tiefenhermeneutische Kulturanalyse. In A. Lorenzer (Ed.), Kultur-Analysen: Psychoanalytische Studien zur Kultur (pp. 11–98) Frankfurt/M.: Fischer.Google Scholar
  22. McEnery, T., Xiao, R., & Tono, Y. (2006). Corpus-based language studies: An advanced research book. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Miller, V. (2011). Understanding digital culture. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. Netz-gegen-Nazis.de. (2015, October 22). Monitoring: 225 mal ‘Nein zum Heim’ auf Facebook. Retrieved October 30, 2016, from http://www.netz-gegen-nazis.de/artikel/monitoring-225-mal-nein-zum-heim-auf-facebook-10642.
  25. Neumayer, C. (2016). Nationalist and anti-fascist movements in social media. In A. Bruns, G. Enli, E. Skogerbø, A. O. Larsson, & C. Christensen (Eds.), The Routledge companion to social media and politics (pp. 296–308). New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Nicholas, S., & O’Malley, T. (2013). Moral panics, social fears and the media: Historical perspectives. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pariser, E. (2011). The filter bubble: What the internet is hiding from you. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  28. Patton, D. U., Hong, J. S., Ranney, M., Patel, S., Kelley, C., Eschmann, R., & Washington, T. (2014). Social media as a vector for youth violence: A review of the literature. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 548–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Plessner, H. (1982). Mit anderen Augen. Aspekte einer philosophischen Anthropologie. Stuttgart: Reklam.Google Scholar
  30. Potter, J., & Wetherell, M. (1987). Discourse and social psychology: Beyond attitudes and behaviour. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Reinbold, F. (2015, October 24). Das bisschen Hass. Spiegel Online. Retrieved October 30, 2016, from http://www.spiegel.de/netzwelt/netzpolitik/facebook-in-dublin-das-bisschen-hass-a-1059317.html.
  32. Reinemann, C., Aalberg, T., Esser, F., Strömbäck, J., & de Vreese, C. H. (2017). Populist political communication: Toward a model of its causes, forms, and effects. In T. Aalberg, F. Esser, C. Reinemann, J. Stromback, & C. H. de Vreese (Eds.), Populist political communication in Europe (pp. 12–28) London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Reinfrank, T., & Brausam, E. (2016). Rechter Terror gegen Flüchtlinge – Die Rückkehr der Rechten Gewalt der 1990er Jahre. In O. Decker, J. Kiess, & E. Brähler (Eds.), Die enthemmte Mitte. Autoritäre und rechtsextreme Einstellung in Deutschland (pp. 235–244). Giessen: Psychosozial.Google Scholar
  34. Riechers, K. (2015, July 30). Stadt München ruft Katastrophenfall aus. Bild. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://www.bild.de/regional/muenchen/fluechtling/zu-viele-fluechtlinge-stadt-muenchen-ruft-katastrophenfall-aus-42009138.bild.html.
  35. Shields, R. (2003). The Virtual. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Shields, R. (2006). Virtualities. Theory, Culture & Society, 23(2–3), 284–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Spiegel Online. (2016, September 24). Fremdenfeindliche Gewalt drastisch gestiegen. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/fluechtlinge-rechte-gewalt-gegen-auslaender-nimmt-zu-a-1113669.html.
  38. Sunstein, C. (2001). Republic.com. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Sunstein, C. (2007). Republic.com 2.0. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Welt. (2016, September 30). Deutschland korrigiert Flüchtlingszahl für 2015. Retrieved July 31, 2016, from https://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article158465433/Deutschland-korrigiert-Fluechtlingszahl-fuer-2015.html.
  41. Yates, C. (2015). The play of political culture, emotion and identity. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zeit Online. (2016, June 1). Lernt einfach mal einen Flüchtling persönlich kennen. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from http://www.zeit.de/gesellschaft/zeitgeschehen/2016-06/angela-merkel-fluechtlingspolitik-verteidigung-bunte-interview.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Media and CommunicationUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations