Advertisement

Four Monuments and a Funeral: Pathological Mourning and Collective Memory in Contemporary Hungary

  • Jeffrey Stevenson MurerEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Studies in the Psychosocial book series (STIP)

Abstract

In this chapter, I suggest that the rhetoric of the Hungarian far right largely resembles what Vamik Volkan has called Established Pathological Mourning. In such circumstances, mourning becomes extended, whereby an individual – or in the present case, a collective – cannot adaptively work through the loss of a loved object. Mourning rituals are extended, whereby the repetition of mourning is an attempt to ‘keep alive’ the lost object. Rather than being a recognition of loss, these complicated mourning rituals forestall the work of living on without the lost object. I suggest that, similar to the re-grief therapy that Volkan promotes, collective cultural mourning may offer an adaptive way forward in working through the issues of loss and control for a larger segment of a society.

References

  1. Athena Institute. (2014a). Death Squad profile. Retrieved from http://www.athenainstitute.eu/en/map/olvas/34.
  2. Athena Institute. (2014b). Hungarian National Front profile. Retrieved from http://www.athenainstitute.eu/en/map/olvas/20.
  3. Balogh, E. S. (2013, October 7). Outrageous police reaction to crimes against Hungarian Roma [Blog post]. Hungarian Spectrum. Retrieved from http://www.hungarianspectrum.wordpress.com/2013/10/7/outrageous-police-reaction-to-crimes-against-the-hungarian-roma/.
  4. BBC News. (2011, April 27). Hungary Roma battle far-right vigilantes. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-13206261.
  5. Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and Melancholia. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XIV (1914–1916): On the History of the Psycho-Analytic Movement, Papers on Metapsychology and Other Works (pp. 237–258). London, UK: Vintage Classics.Google Scholar
  6. Hertz, R. (1960). Death and the right hand. Aberdeen, UK: University of Aberdeen Press.Google Scholar
  7. Index.hu. (2014, June 16). 25 éve temettek újra Nagy Imrét. Retrieved from http://index.hu/belfold/2014/06/16/nagy_imre_omega/.
  8. Ittzés, G (2005). Ritual and national self-interpretation: The Imre Nagy funeral. Religion and Society in Central and Eastern Europe, 1. http://rascee.net/index.php/rascee/article/view/26/7
  9. Karsai, L. (2012). Szálasi Ferenc, a tökéletes bűnbak. Beszélő 17(10), Retrieved from http://beszelo.c3.hu/cikkek/szalasi-ferenc-a-tokeletes-bunbak.
  10. Klein, M. (1932). The Psycho-analysis of children. London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  11. Koshar, R. J. (1994). Building pasts: Historic preservation and identity in twentieth-century Germany. In J. R. Gillis (Ed.), Commemorations: The politics of national identity (pp. 215–238). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Kovrig, B. (1979). Communism in Hungary: From Kun to Kádár. Histories of Ruling Communist Parties Series. Stanford, CA: The Hoover Institution.Google Scholar
  13. Kristeva, J. (1994). Strangers to ourselves. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Moruzzi, N. C. (1993). National abjects: Julia Kristeva on the process of political self-identification. In K. Oliver (Ed.), Ethics, politics, and difference in Julia Kristeva’s writing, 135–49. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Murer, J. S. (2002). The clash within: Intrapsychically created enemies and their roles in ethno-nationalist conflict. In K. Worcester, M. Ungar, & S. Bermanzohn (Eds.), Violence and Politics: Globalization’s Paradox (pp. 209–225). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Murer, J. S. (2009). Constructing the enemy-other: Anxiety, trauma and mourning in the narratives of political conflict. Psychoanalysis, Culture and Society, 14(2), 109–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Murer, J. S. (2015). Against liberalism: The rise of Jobbik, populism and the symbolic politics of illiberalism in contemporary Hungary. Polish International Affairs Quarterly, 2, 79–102.Google Scholar
  18. Nagy, E. (2014, January 22). Jewish groups denounce memorial to German invasion of Hungary. Budapest Beacon. Retrieved from www.budapestbeacon.com/featured-articles/jewish-groups-denounce-memorial-to-german-invasion-of-hungary.
  19. Orbán, V. (1989, June 16) Speech at the Imre Nagy Funeral. Retrieved from https://theorangefiles.hu/category/speech/
  20. Pao, P. N. (1965). The role of hatred in the ego. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 34(2), 257–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Papp, K. (2015). Die Schlacht um Budapest 1944. Lebendiges Museum Online. Retrieved from https://www.dhm.de/lemo/kapitel/zweiter-weltkrieg/kriegsverlauf/budapest.
  22. Phillips, L. (2010, April 19). A far-right for the Facebook generation: The rise and rise of Jobbik. EU Observer. Retrieved from https://euobserver.com/political/29866.
  23. Rév, I. (1995). Parallel Autopsies. Representations, 49, 15–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sakmyster, T. (1994) Hungary’s Admiral on Horseback: Miklós Horthy, 1918–1944. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Seleny, A. (2014). Revolutionary road: 1956 and the fracturing of Hungarian historical memory. In M. Bernhard & J. Kubik (Eds.), Twenty years after communism: The politics of memory and commemoration (pp. 37–59). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Szentkoronaradio. (2012, August 6). ‘A cigánybűnözők felett győzött a nemzeti összefogás’ [The criminals prevailed over national unity]. Retrieved from http://www.old.szentkoronaradio.com/devecser.
  27. Szinai, M., & Szűcs, L. (Eds.). (1965). The confidential papers of Admiral Horthy. Budapest: Corvina Press.Google Scholar
  28. Varga, D. (2014, May 16) “Miért szavaz egy fiatal lány a Jobbikra?” [Why would a young girl vote for Jobbik?] Népszabadság, Retrieved from: http://nol.hu/belfold/miert-szavaz-egy-fiatal-lany-a-jobbikra-1462331.
  29. Verdery, K. (2000). The political lives of dead bodies: Reburial and postsocialist change. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Volkan, V. (1981). Linking objects and linking phenomena: A Study of the forms, symptoms, metapsychology, and therapy of complicated mourning. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  31. Volkan, V. D. (1988). The need to have enemies and allies: From clinical practice to international relations. Northvale, NJ: Aronson Publishers.Google Scholar
  32. Zerubavel, Y. (1994). The historic, the legendary, and the incredible: invented tradition and collective memory in Israel. In J. R. Gillis (Ed.), Commemorations: The politics of national identity (pp. 105–126). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of International RelationsUniversity of St. AndrewsFifeScotland

Personalised recommendations