High-voltage (HV) test and measuring techniques are considered in most general HV text books (e.g. Kuechler 2009; Kuffel et al. 2007; Beyer et al. 1986; Mosch et al. 1988; Schufft et al. 2007; Arora and Mosch 2011). There are teaching books on HV test techniques for students (Marx 1952; Kind and Feser 1999) as well as few text books on special fields, e.g. on HV measuring technique (Schwab 1981; Schon 2010, 2016). It is the aim of this book to supply a comprehensive survey on the state of the art of both, HV test and measuring techniques, for engineers in practice, graduates and students of master courses. A certain guideline for this is the relevant worldwide series of standards of the Technical Committee 42 (TC42: “High-Voltage and High-Current Test and Measuring Techniques”) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC ), largely identical with the corresponding standards of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). This introduction contains also the relation between HV test and measuring techniques and the requirements of power systems with respect to the increasing transmission voltages and the principles of insulation coordination. Furthermore, HV testing for quality assurance and condition assessment in the life cycle of power equipment is investigated.