Problems and Perspectives of Existing Interpretations of Kemalism

  • Vahram Ter-Matevosyan
Part of the Modernity, Memory and Identity in South-East Europe book series (MOMEIDSEE)


After discussing major turning points in the evolution and transformation of Kemalism between the 1920s and 1970s and before shifting to Soviet perceptions, it is useful to establish existing interpretations of Kemalism and revisit certain established patterns. Since its inception, Kemalism produced divergent interpretations and schisms over its meaning, not only during its active period—what was called “high-Kemalism”—but also after its decline.


  1. Adanır, Fikret. 2001. “Kemalist Authoritarianism and Fascist Trends in Turkey During the Inter-War Period.” In Fascism Outside Europe, edited by Stein Ugelvik Larsen, 313–361. Boulder: Social Science Monographs.Google Scholar
  2. Akçam, Taner. 2006. A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility. New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
  3. Alp, Tekin. 1937. Le Kemalisme. Paris: F. Alcan. Google Scholar
  4. Dahl, Ottar. 1996. “The Historical Study of Ideologies.” In Societies Made Up of History: Essays in Historiography, Intellectual History, Professionalization, Historical Social Theory and Proto-Industrialization, edited by Björk Ragnar, Thorsten Nybom, and Rolf Torstendahl, 17–28. Stockholm: Edsbruk: Akademitryck AB.Google Scholar
  5. Eatwell, Roger. 2001. “Universal Fascism? Approaches and Definitions.” In Fascism Outside Europe: The European Impulse Against Domestic Conditions in the Diffusion of Global Fascism, edited by Stein Ugelvik Larsen, 15–45. Boulder: Social Science Monographs.Google Scholar
  6. Friedrich, Carl, and Zbigniew Brzezinski. 1956. Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Hanioğlu, Şükrü. 2011. Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Harris, George. 1967. The Origins of Communism in Turkey. Stanford: Stanford University.Google Scholar
  9. Heper, Metin. 1985. The State Tradition in Turkey. Beverley: Eothen Press.Google Scholar
  10. İrem, Nazım. 2002. “Turkish Conservative Modernism: Birth of a Nationalist Quest for Cultural Renewal.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 34 (1): 87–112.Google Scholar
  11. Kevorkian, Raymond. 2011. The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  12. Kili, Suna. 1969. Kemalism. İstanbul: School of Business Administration and Economics, Robert College.Google Scholar
  13. Kolesnikov, Aleksandr. 1984. Narodnye Doma v Obshhestvenno-politicheskoj i kul’turnoj zhizni Tureckoj Respubliki [People’s Houses in the Socio-Political and Cultural Life of the Turkish Republic]. Moscow: Nauka.Google Scholar
  14. Larsen, Stein Ugelvik. 2001. “Was There Fascism Outside Europe? Diffusion from Europe and Domestic Impulses?” In Fascism Outside Europe: The European Impusle Against Domestic Conditions in the Diffusion of Global Fascism, edited by Stein Ugelvik Larsen. Boulder: Social Sciene Monographs.Google Scholar
  15. Lee, Stephen. 2005. European Dictatorships, 1918–1945, 2nd. ed. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mann, Michael. 2004. Fascists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Özdalga, Elisabeth. 1978. I Atatürks spår: Det Republikanska FolkPartiet och utvecklingsmobilisering I Turkiet från etatism till populism. Lund: Dialog.Google Scholar
  18. Parker, John, and Charles Smith. 1940. Modern Turkey. London: George Routledge and Sons.Google Scholar
  19. Parla, Taha, and Andrew Davison. 2004. Corporatist Ideology in Kemalist Turkey: Progress or Order? Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Shaw, Stanford, and Shaw Kural Ezel. 1977. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Vol. II: Reform, Revolution, and Republic: The Rise of Modern Turkey, 1808–1975. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Van der Lippe, John. 2005. The Politics of Turkish Democracy: İsmet İnönü and the Formation of the Multi-Party System, 1938–1950. New York: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  22. Weiker, Walter. 1973. Political Tutelage and Democracy in Turkey: The Free Party and Its Aftermath. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  23. Zürcher, Erik-Jan. 1993. Turkey: A Modern History. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  24. Zürcher, Erik-Jan. 2005. “Ottoman Sources of Kemalist Thought.” In Late Ottoman Society: The Intellectual Legacy, edited by Elisabeth Özdalga, 13–26. London: Curzon.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vahram Ter-Matevosyan
    • 1
  1. 1.American University of ArmeniaYerevanArmenia

Personalised recommendations