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Sensing in Ferroelectric Memories and Flip-Flops

  • Ahmedullah Aziz
  • Sandeep Krishna Thirumala
  • Danni Wang
  • Sumitha George
  • Xueqing Li
  • Suman Datta
  • Vijaykrishnan Narayanan
  • Sumeet Kumar Gupta
Chapter

Abstract

Ferroelectric (FE) materials, by virtue of their polarization retention in the absence of the electric field, offer a unique method to introduce non-volatility in memories and logic. The exploration of FE materials in context of their application in compute and storage has been carried out in two forms: (1) as capacitors, in which the FE material is sandwiched between two metal layers and (2) in ferroelectric transistors (FEFETs), in which, FE is integrated into the gate stack of FETs. Both the devices have been explored to design non-volatile memories and flip-flops. The commonality between the two technologies is that they use remnant polarization in the FE to define the binary logic states. However, the sensing as well as the switching of the polarization requires considerably different techniques for FE capacitors and transistors. Moreover, the requirements of the application (memory, flip-flop, etc.) also dictate the methodology for reading or writing the logic state. This chapter discusses the device–circuit aspects of FE capacitors and FEFETs in the context of non-volatile memory and logic design, with a focus on the sensing techniques. We present a comparative description of the two technologies, highlighting the pros and cons of each and how different device structures yield significantly different sensing strategy.

Keywords

Ferroelectric capacitors Ferroelectric transistors FERAM Flip-flop Non-volatile memories Non-volatile logic Polarization Reference generator Sense margin Restore 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the DARPA Young Faculty Award program and  SRC-GRC for their support for the work on FEFET-based designs.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmedullah Aziz
    • 1
  • Sandeep Krishna Thirumala
    • 1
  • Danni Wang
    • 2
  • Sumitha George
    • 2
  • Xueqing Li
    • 2
  • Suman Datta
    • 3
  • Vijaykrishnan Narayanan
    • 2
  • Sumeet Kumar Gupta
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Electrical and Computer EngineeringPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.School of Electrical Engineering and Computer SciencePennsylvania State UniversityState CollegeUSA
  3. 3.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of Notre DameSouth BendUSA

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