• Valeria Gattai
  • Rajssa Mechelli
  • Piergiovanna Natale


In this chapter, we provide some concluding remarks and suggest future lines of research. To this end, we briefly summarize the content of the previous chapters and comment extensively on the empirical results of our multi-country versus single-country empirical analysis. These results are put in perspective and contrasted with previous studies on related issues, to stress the contribution this book aims to provide to the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) literature. Empirical posteriors and theoretical priors are matched, to suggest that our findings are not a mere replica of others’ results, but they rather shed some light on previously neglected sides of the Outward Direct Investment (ODI)-performance nexus. In particular, we show that the positive correlation between ODI and firm performance is a matter of both involvement versus non-involvement in ODI and the type of ODI that a firm undertakes. Being true for China and India as well as for the overall group of BRIC economies—embracing also Brazil and Russia—this is a novel contribution of this book. Clearly, this could not be addressed by previous studies as they were based on a more elementary taxonomy of ODI.

At the end of this chapter, policy implications are derived and carefully discussed.


FDI ODI Firm performance BRIC China India 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valeria Gattai
    • 1
  • Rajssa Mechelli
    • 2
  • Piergiovanna Natale
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Milano-BicoccaMilanItaly
  2. 2.Catholic University of the Sacred HeartMilanItaly

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