Strength, Flexibility and Temperature Changes During Step Aerobics Training

  • Piotr BorkowskiEmail author
  • Jolanta Grażyna Zuzda
  • Robert Latosiewicz
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 831)


Purpose: The purpose of this study was the analysis of temperature changes in the muscles quadriceps and biceps femoris areas of healthy subjects over a 15-week Step Aerobics Training (SAT) program. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly we verify if SAT training has an impact on the temperature changes in the muscles quadriceps and biceps femoris and thermoregulation of healthy subjects. Secondly, we verify if there is relationship between the index of strength and flexibility with thermal results.

Methods: The study was conducted with 11 women subjects aged between 20- and 22-years-old. Training sessions of SAT took 15 weeks. Subjects performed two training session per week for 60 min per session. Assessments included the evaluation of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, vital capacity of lungs, maximal oxygen uptake and flexibility and strength. Subjects’ fitness was evaluated by testing the following tasks: standing long jumps and toe-touch test. For thermograms acquisition a thermographic camera CEDIP Titanium 560M IR (USA) was used.

Results: After 15 weeks SAT the temperature changes were found to be larger on the front surfaces than on back surfaces of lower extremities. Positive correlation between strength and skin temperature and negative correlation between flexibility and temperature was found.

Conclusions: 15-weeks-long SAT can promote improvements in the thermoregulation of apparently healthy women. This method may be used as a tool for establishing the efficiency of SAT in the training process.


Thermal images Thermoregulation step aerobics training Strength Flexibility 


  1. 1.
    Abate, M., et al.: Comparison of cutaneous termic response to a standardised warm up in trained and untrained individuals. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fit. 26(53), 18–37 (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chudecka, M.: The use of thermal imaging to evaluate body temperature changes of athletes during training and a study on the impact of physiological and morphological factors on skin temperature. Hum. Mov. 13(1), 33–39 (2012)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chudecka, M.: Use of thermal imaging in the evaluation of body surface temperature in various physiological states In patients with different body compositions and varying levels of physical activity. Cent. Eur. J. Sport Sci. Med. 2(2), 15–20 (2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clark, R.P., Mullan, B.J., Pugh, L.G.: Skin temperature during running – a study using infrared color thermograph. J. Physiol. 267, 53–62 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coh, M.: Use of thermovision method in sport training. Phys. Educ. Sport 5(1), 85–94 (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, I., Sawczym, M., et al.: The effects of a 10-weeks step aerobics training on V02max, isometric strength and body composition of young women. Cent. Eur. J. Sport Sci. Med. 4(4), 3–9 (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Forte, R., De Vito, G., Murphy, N., et al.: Cardiovascular response during low-intensity step-aerobic dance in middle-aged subjects. Eur. J. Sport Sci. 1(3), 1–7 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gold, J.E., Cherniack, M., Buchholz, B.: Infrared thermography for examination of skin temperature in the dorsal hand of office workers. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 93, 245–251 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hesson, J.L.: Weight Training for Life, 9th edn., Wadsworth (2010)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ludwig, N., et al.: Comparison of image analysis methods in skin temperature measurements during physical exercise. In: Quantitative InfraRed Thermography (QIRT) Conference, QIRT (2014)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hallage, T., Krause, M.P., Haile, L., Miculis, C.P., Nagle, E.F., Reis, R.S.: The effects of 12 weeks of step aerobics training on functional fitness of elderly women. J. Strength Cond. Res. 24(8), 2261–2266 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hildebrandt, C., et al.: An overview of recent application of medical infrared thermography in sports medicine in Austria. Sensors 10(5), 4700–4715 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hildebrandt, C., et al.: The application of medical infrared thermography in sports medicine. In: An International Perspective on Topics in Sports Medicine and Sports Injury, pp. 257–274 (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hoover, K.C., Burlingame, S.E., Lautz, C.H.: Opportunities and challenges in concrete with thermal imaging. Concr. Int. 26, 23–27 (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kaminski, A., Jouglar, J., Volle, C., Natalizio, S., Vuillermoz, P.L., Laugier, A.: Non-destructive characterization of defects in devices using infrared thermography. Microelectron. J. 30, 137–1140 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kravitz, L., Cisar, C.J., Christensen, C.L., Setterlund, S.S.: The physiological effects of step training with and without handweights. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fit. 33(4), 348–358 (1993)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mori, Y., Ayabe, M., Yahir, T., et al.: The effects of home-based bench step exercise on aerobic capacity. Lower extremity power and static balance in older adults. Int. J. Sport Health Sci. 4, 570–576 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Novotny, J.: The influence of breaststroke swimming on the muscle activity of young men in thermographic imaging. Acta Bioeng. Biomech. 17(2), 121–129 (2015)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Neves, E.B., Matos, F., Martins da Cunha, R., Reis, V.M.: Thermography to monitoring of sports training: an overview. Pan Am. J. Med. Thermol. 2(1), 18–22 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oja, P., Tuxworth, B.: Eurofit for adults. Assessment of health – relate fitness. Committee for the Development of Sport. Council of Europe. Strasbourg Cedex and UKK Institute for Health Promotion research, Tampere (2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pereira, A., et al.: Combined strength and step aerobics training leads to significant gains in maximal strength and body composition in women. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 53(3 Suppl. 1), 38–43 (2013)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Santos-Rocha, R.A., Oliveira, C.S., Veloso, A.P.: Osteogenic index of step exercise depending on choreographic movements. session duration, and stepping rate. Br. J. Sports Med. 40(10), 860–866 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schlader, Z.J., Stannard, S.R., Mündel, T.: Human thermoregulatory behavior during rest and exercise - a prospective review. Physiol. Behav. 99(3), 269–275 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wu, C.L., Yu, K.L., Chuang, H.Y., Huang, M.H., Chen, C.H.: The application of infrared thermography in the assessment of patients with coccygodynia before and after manual therapy combined with diathermy. J. Manip. Physiol. Ther. 14, 281–293 (2009)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zuzda, J.G., Latosiewicz, R.: A Method of Conducting Recreational Classes Using the System of Reebok Step Exercises. Bialystok University of Technology, Bialystok (2010)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zuzda, J.G., Latosiewicz, R.: Zmiana temperatury powierzchni ciała podczas rekreacyjnego uprawiania łucznictwa – badanie pilotażowe. (Changing of Body Temperature During Archery Recreation – Pilot Examination) 2, 147–158 (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Piotr Borkowski
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jolanta Grażyna Zuzda
    • 2
  • Robert Latosiewicz
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Biocybernetics and Biomedical EngineeringBialystok University of TechnologyBialystokPoland
  2. 2.Tourism and Recreation DepartmentBialystok University of TechnologyBialystokPoland
  3. 3.Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Rehabilitation and PhysiotherapyMedical University of LublinLublinPoland

Personalised recommendations