Prediction of the Segmental Pelvic Ring Fractures Under Impact Loadings During Car Crash

  • Tomasz KlekielEmail author
  • Katarzyna Arkusz
  • Grzegorz Sławiński
  • Romuald Bȩdziński
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 831)


The Pelvis is the most susceptible part of the body to damage during car accidents and is characterized by the highest mortality rate, especially in the case of multiple fractures. The mechanism of these fractures remains unclear and this makes the development of effective crash protection more difficult. A geometric model of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex (LPHC) including elements of skeletal, muscular and ligament structure stabilizing the pelvis was elaborated on the computed tomography images of a 25-year-old patient. The influence of pelvic boundary conditions on the type of injuries was subjected to analysis using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The cases of a model anchorage dependent on the position of the passenger’s body in the vehicle, where the impact of interior vehicle elements, such as seat belts or a car seat, were taken into account. A fracture threshold was established by applying lateral loads from 0 to 10 kN to a greater trochanter of the femoral bone in each of a five cases of boundary conditions reflecting the influence of different car parts on a passenger’s body. The magnitude of the contact force between the body and the vehicle parts during a side collision against the driver’s door were determined using the elaborated model. Furthermore, a pelvis lateral collision theory model was built and validated with the use of clinical data. The obtained results can provide an estimate for a threshold of the initial failure in the pelvis bone due to an impact compression transmitted through an overlying tissue. Therefore, it was assumed that the properties of the fractured structure are similar to the cancellous bone.


Pelvic injury Finite elements Injury mechanism Fracture of bone Soft tissue Car accident 



The research was done within the project no. DOBR-BIO4/022/13149/2013 ‘Improving the Safety and Protection of Soldiers on Missions Through Research and Development in Military Medical and Technical Areas’ supported and co-financed by NCR&D, Poland.


  1. 1.
    Lopez-Valdes, F.J., Lau, S.H., Riley, P.O., Lessley, D.J., Arbogast, K.B., Seacrist, T., Balasubramanian, S., Maltese, MGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kent, R.: The six degrees of freedom motion of the human head, spine, and pelvis in a frontal impact. Traffic Inj. Prev. 15(3), 294–301 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Klekiel, T.: Biomechanical analysis of lower limb of soldiers in vehicle under high dynamic load from blast event. Ser. Biomech. 29(2–3), 14–30 (2015)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Klekiel, T., Bedzinski, R.: Finite element analysis of large deformation of articular cartilage in upper ankle joint of occupant in military vehicles during explosion. Arch. Metall. Mater. 60(3), 2115–2121 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beason, D.P., Dakin, G.J., Lopez, R.R., Alonson, J.E., Bandak, F.A., Eberhardt, A.W.: Bone mineral density correlates with fracture load in experimental side impacts of the pelvis. J. Biomech. 36, 219–227 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rowe, A.S.: Pelvic ring fractures: implications of vehicle design, crash type, and occupant characteristic. Surgery 136(4), 842–847 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Etheridge, B.S., Beason, D.P., Lopez, R.R., Alonso, J.E., McGwin, G., Eberhardt, A.W.: Effects of trochanteric soft tissues and bone density on fracture of the female pelvis in experimental side impacts. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33(2), 248–254 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dawson, J.M., Khmelniker, B.V., McAndrew, M.P.: Analysis of the structural behavior of the pelvis during lateral impact using the finite element method. Accid. Anal. Prev. 31, 109–119 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Majumder, S., Roychowdhury, A., Pal, S.: A finite element study on the behavior of human pelvis under impact through car door. In: Paper Presented at: 1st International Conference on ESAR, Hannover, German (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li, Z., Kim, J., Davidson, J.S., Etheridge, B.S., Alonso, J.E., Eberhardt, A.W.: Biomechanical response of the pubic symphysis in lateral pelvic impacts: a finite element study. J. Biomech. 40, 2758–2766 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Majumder, S., Roychoowdhury, A., Pal, S.: Dynamic response of the pelvis under side impact load - a three-dimensional finite element approach. Int. J. Crashworthiness 9(1), 89–103 (2004b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    El-Asfoury, M.S.: Static and dynamic three-dimensional finite element analysis of pelvic bone. Int. J. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 3(1), 36–41 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Plummer, J.W., Eberhardt, A.W., Alonso, J.E., Mann, K.A.: Parametric tests of the human pelvis: the influence of load rate and boundary condition on peak stress location during simulated side impact. Adv. Bioeng. 39, 165–166 (1998)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sarlak, A.Y.: An unusual type of lateral compression injury of the pelvis tilt fracture with anterior displacement. Injury 40, 1036–1039 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yoganandan, N., Pintar, F.A., Stemper, B.D., Gennarelli, T.A., Weigelt, J.A.: Biomechanics of side impact: injury criteria, aging occupants, and airbag technology. J. Biomech. 40(2), 227–243 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rommens, P.M., Hofmann, A.: Comprehensive classification of fragility fractures of the pelvic ring: recommendations for surgical treatment. Injury 44, 1733–1744 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bedzinski, R., Nikodem, A.M., Ścigała, K., Dragan, S.: Mechanical and structural anisotropy of human cancellous femur bone. J. Vibroeng. 11(3), 571–576 (2009)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shim, V., Bohme, J., Vaitl, P., Klima, S., Josten, C., Anderson, I.: Finite element analysis of acetabular fractures - development and validation with a synthetic pelvis. J. Biomech. 43, 1635–1639 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bedzinski, R., Wysocki, M., Kobus, K., Szotek, S., Kobielarz, M., Kuropka, P.: Biomechanical effect of rapid mucoperiosteal palatal tissue expansion with the use of osmotic expanders. J. Biomech. 44(7), 1313–1320 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bedzinski, R.: Selected problem in application of experimental and numerical methods in the biomedical engineering. In: Paper presented at: 27th Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, Wrocław, Poland (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Keyak, J.H., Rossi, S.A., Jones, K.A., Skinner, H.B.: Prediction of femoral fracture load using automated finite element modeling. J. Biomech. 31, 125–133 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Keyak, J.H.: Improved prediction of proximal femoral fracture load using nonlinear finite element models. Med. Eng. Phys. 23, 165–173 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bessho, M., Ohnishi, I., Matsumoto, T., Ohashi, S., Matsuyama, J., Tobita, K., Kaneko, M., Nakamura, K.: Prediction of proximal femur strength using a CT-based nonlinear finite element method: differences in predicted fracture load and site with changing load and boundary conditions. Bone 45, 226–231 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bekker, A., Kok, S., Cloete, T.J., Nurick, G.N.: Introducing objective power law rate dependence into a viscoelastic material model of bovine cortical bone. Int. J. Imp. Eng. 66, 28–36 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Varga, E., Balázs, E.: Severe pelvic bleeding: the role of primary internal fixation. Eur. J. Trauma Emerg. Surg. 36(2), 107–116 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Golman, A.J., Danelson, K.A., Miller, L.E., Stitzel, J.D.: Injury prediction in a side impact crash using human body model simulation. Accid. Anal. Prev. 64, 1–8 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ma, Z., Lan, F., Chen, J., Liu, W.: Finite element study of human pelvis model in side impact for Chinese adult occupants. Traffic Inj. Prev. 16(4), 409–17 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schiff, M.A.: Risk factors for pelvic fractures in lateral impact motor vehicle crashes. Accid. Anal. Prev. 40, 387–391 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Viano, D.C., Lau, I.V., Asbury, C., King, A.I., Begeman, P.: Biomechanics of the human chest, abdomen and pelvis in lateral impact. Accid. Anal. Prev. 21, 553–574 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomasz Klekiel
    • 1
    Email author
  • Katarzyna Arkusz
    • 1
  • Grzegorz Sławiński
    • 2
  • Romuald Bȩdziński
    • 1
  1. 1.Biomedical Engineering DivisionUniversity of Zielona GoraZielona GoraPoland
  2. 2.Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanics and Applied Computer ScienceMilitary University of TechnologyWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations