• Martin N. Ndlela


Crises are an inevitable part of modern society with ramifications not only for organizations but also for diverse stakeholders that constitute part of an organization’s environment. This chapter discusses different types of organizational crisis and crisis typologies. It examines the paradigm shift in the understanding of crisis communication, from a narrower focus on crisis as an event to a broader conceptualization of crisis as processes encompassing pre-crisis, crisis and post-crisis management strategies. The main argument advanced in this chapter is that organizations should be guided by a stakeholder-oriented culture that values the involvement of stakeholders in most of the activities throughout the crisis management cycle.


Organizational crisis Crisis typologies Stakeholder approach Stakeholder orientation 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin N. Ndlela
    • 1
  1. 1.Inland School of Business and Social SciencesInland Norway University of Applied SciencesElverumNorway

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