The Concept of Human Security in Vietnam

  • Lan Dung Pham
  • Ngoc Lan Nguyen
  • Bich Thao Bui
  • Thi Trang Ngo
  • Thu Giang Nguyen
Part of the Security, Development and Human Rights in East Asia book series (SDHRP)


This chapter reviews the law and policies relating to human security in Vietnam and demonstrates that the seven elements of human security listed in the Human Development Report 1994 can be implicitly found in the Vietnamese legislation. In responding to the question of how to address human security issues, most interviewees indicated that the government should take the lead in protecting people against threats to human security. Although not familiar with the idea of human security, the interviewees were generally able to quickly link the three freedoms, as well as various threats to human security, to specific examples from their own lives. In Vietnam, human security is “a jigsaw puzzle, in which the pieces are identified and well grasped, but have not been put together.”


Human Security Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual And Transgender (LGBT) Human rightsHuman Rights Human traffickingHuman Trafficking Prime Minister Decision 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Chu, Manh Hung. 2012. Vấn đề an ninh con ngưới trong luật quốc tế hiện đại [Human Security in Modern International Law]. PhD Diss., Hanoi Law University.Google Scholar
  2. Hong, Ha. 2014. Climate Change Threatens Human Security. Binh Dinh Online, March 31.Google Scholar
  3. Institute for International Relations. 2002. Report for the Second National Workshop on Human Security. Hanoi, July.Google Scholar
  4. Ministry of Planning and Investment. 2013. Millennium Development Goals Full Report 2013: Achievements and Challenges in the Progress of Reaching Millennium Development Goals of Vietnam. Hanoi: New Technology Printing Joint Stock Company.Google Scholar
  5. Nguyen, Hong Hai. 2007. Assessing the Inter-relationship of Human Development, Human Security and Human Rights in Poverty Reduction in Vietnam. Paper Presented at Workshop on Mainstreaming Human Security: The Asian Contribution Bangkok, October 4–5.Google Scholar
  6. Nguyen, Minh Triet. 2007. APEC 2007 Closing Ceremony. Online Journal of the Communist Party of Vietnam, September 10. Accessed June 20, 2017.
  7. Nguyen, Thang. 2013. Hydroelectricity: From Energy Security to Human Security. One World E-News, November 14.Google Scholar
  8. Ta, Minh Tuan. 2008. An ninh con ngưới trong mối đe doạ toàn cầu [Human Security and Global Threats]. Tạp chí Cộng sản [Communist Journal] 12. Accessed 24 Feb 2018.
  9. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 1994. Human Development Report 1994. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 2005. 2005 World Summit Outcome, A/RES/60/1. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  11. Vu, Duong Ninh. 2009. An ninh con ngưới và sự bất an trong cuộc sống hiện nay [Human Security and Insecurities in Modern Society]. Tạp chí Phát triển khoa học & công nghệ [Journal of Science and Technology Development] 12(1): 5–16.Google Scholar
  12. Water Governance Facility (Stockholm International Water Institute). 2013. Workshop on Water-Food Security in Cambodia and the Vietnam Delta – Assessing Risk and Alternatives under an Altered Flow Regime. Can Tho, December 5–6. Stockholm: SIWI and UNDP.Google Scholar


  1. Academic Source #1. 2014. Vietnam National University. Interviewed by author in Hanoi, April 25Google Scholar
  2. Civil Society Source #1. 2014. East Meets West (NGO). Interviewed by author in Hanoi, April 19Google Scholar
  3. Civil Society Source #2. 2014. The Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union of the Diplomatic Academy of Vietnam. Interviewed by author in Hanoi, July 8Google Scholar
  4. Civil Society Source #3. 2014. The Women’s Union. Interviewed by author in Nam Dinh Province, July 1Google Scholar
  5. Government Source #1. 2014. Ministry of Defense. Interviewed by author in Hanoi, July 20Google Scholar
  6. Government Source #2. 2014. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Interviewed by author in Hanoi, April 16Google Scholar
  7. Government Source #3. 2014. Ministry of Public Security. Interviewed by author in Hanoi, June 11Google Scholar
  8. Media Source #1. 2014. Vietnam News Agency. Interviewed by author in Hanoi, July 20Google Scholar
  9. Media Source #2. 2014. Vietnam Television Corporation (VTC). Interviewed by author in Hanoi, April 18Google Scholar
  10. Private sector Source #1. 2014. Cuu Long Joint Stock Company. Interviewed by author in Hanoi, April 15Google Scholar
  11. Private sector Source #2. 2014. Mai Linh Taxi Corporation. Interviewed by author in Hanoi, July 15Google Scholar
  12. Private sector Source #3. 2014. Mai Linh Taxi Corporation. Interviewed by author in Hanoi, July 15Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lan Dung Pham
    • 1
  • Ngoc Lan Nguyen
    • 2
  • Bich Thao Bui
    • 3
  • Thi Trang Ngo
    • 4
  • Thu Giang Nguyen
    • 5
  1. 1.Foreign Service Training CenterDiplomatic Academy of VietnamHanoiVietnam
  2. 2.School of LawUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.The Ministry OfficeMinistry of Foreign AffairsHanoiVietnam
  4. 4.Faculty of International LawDiplomatic Academy of VietnamHanoiVietnam
  5. 5.National Boundary CommissionMinistry of Foreign AffairsHanoiVietnam

Personalised recommendations