Cord Knots and Pseudo-Knots

  • Kenneth Tou En ChangEmail author
  • Sze Jet Aw


Knots can form in the umbilical cord. Tight knots that cause vascular obstruction can result in adverse fetal outcomes. In contrast, pseudo-knots are focal redundancies in the cord that mimic true knots but have no clinical significance.


Cord knot Pseudo-knot Vascular obstruction 


  1. 1.
    Airas U, Heinonen S. Clinical significance of true umbilical knots: a population-based analysis. Am J Perinatol. 2002;19:127–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Browne F. On the abnormalities of the umbilical cord which may cause antenatal death. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp. 1925;32:17–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blickstein I, Shoham-Schwartz Z, Lancet M. Predisposing factors in the formation of true knots of the umbilical cord--analysis of morphometric and perinatal data. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1987;25:395–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abuhamad A. Three-dimensional ultrasound with color Doppler imaging of an umbilical cord true knot. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2014;43:360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hershkovitz R, Silberstein T, Sheiner E, Shoham-Vardi I, Holcberg G, Katz M, et al. Risk factors associated with true knots of the umbilical cord. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001;98:36–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Raisanen S, Georgiadis L, Harju M, Keski-Nisula L, Heinonen S. True umbilical cord knot and obstetric outcome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013;122:18–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineKK Women’s and Children’s HospitalSingaporeRepublic of Singapore
  2. 2.Duke-NUS Medical SchoolSingaporeRepublic of Singapore

Personalised recommendations