Chronic chorioamnionitis is one the three major chronic inflammatory lesions of the placenta, with the involved compartment being the chorioamniotic membranes. The other two major chronic inflammatory lesions are villitis of unknown aetiology and chronic deciduitis, with the involved compartments being the villous tree and the basal decidua, respectively. These chronic inflammatory lesions are frequently seen together and are characterized by maternal cellular infiltration. While some may result from subclinical infection of an as yet identified nature, a growing body of evidence supports these lesions as resulting from maternal anti-fetal rejection. Chronic chorioamnionitis is more frequent in spontaneous preterm compared to term deliveries and is the most frequently identified placental lesion in late spontaneous preterm birth. It is also associated with unexplained fetal death. Chronic chorioamnionitis is characterized by infiltration of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells into the chorioamnionic membranes, resulting in trophoblastic injury. The maternal T lymphocytes are believed to migrate from the decidua into the chorioamnionic membranes as a result of a chemotactic gradient caused by dysregulated T cell chemokines in the amnionic fluid favouring migration of T cells.
KeywordsCD8+ T cell Chemokine Chronic chorioamnionitis CXCL10 Prematurity Rejection Stillbirth
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