Placental Changes in Amniotic Band Sequence, Extra-Amniotic and Extramembranous Pregnancy

  • Eumenia CastroEmail author
  • Eileen McKay


Three entities, characterized by rupture of the amnion, are described. Amniotic band sequence is a group of congenital abnormalities with a variable spectrum of abnormalities characterized by formation of fibrous bands or sheets from the placenta attaching to fetal structures. The placenta often shows an intact, somewhat thickened chorion and a globular portion of disrupted amnion at the base of the umbilical cord with small tethers to the cord. Extra-amniotic and extramembranous pregnancy are rare events in which the fetus develops partially or completely outside intact membranes. Extra-amniotic pregnancy occurs with complete amnion rupture sufficiently early, or late, in gestation with no fetal sequelae of amniotic band formation. It results in a small, thick remnant of amnion remaining attached to the proximal umbilical cord within an intact chorionic membrane. Disruption of both amnion and chorion in early to mid-gestation results in extramembranous pregnancy associated with placental circumvallation and high fetal morbidity. Residual membranes are short and thick comprising a restrictive sac insufficient to contain the developing fetus.


Amniotic band Placenta Fibrous bands Amniotic band sequence Extra-amniotic Extramembranous Complete chorioamnion membrane separation Rupture 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Immunology, Texas Children’s Hospital, Pavilion for WomenBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Community Pathology, Department of Pathology and ImmunologyTexas Children’s Hospital The WoodlandsThe WoodlandsUSA
  3. 3.Department of PathologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

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