Fetal Vascular Malperfusion

  • Theonia K. BoydEmail author
  • Drucilla J. Roberts
  • Amy Heerema-McKenney


Fetal vascular malperfusion is the phrase that encompasses all mechanisms of restricted fetal blood flow from the placenta, through the umbilical cord, to the fetus, and vice versa. The most common group of mechanisms involves mechanical restriction of blood flow through the umbilical cord. Less common causes are those attributable to fetal blood hypercoagulability or impaired fetal cardiac function. High-grade features of fetal vascular malperfusion are associated with an increased risk of untoward fetal and neonatal outcome, including stillbirth, neonatal seizures, and long-term developmental deficits, most significantly those of neurodisability. Current preferred terminology for specific lesions is underscored.


Fetal vascular malperfusion Villous stromal-vascular karyorrhexis Avascular villi Stem vessel obliteration Delayed villous maturation Fetal vascular thrombosis Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy Haemorrhagic endovasculitis Endovasculopathy Fibromuscular sclerosis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theonia K. Boyd
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Drucilla J. Roberts
    • 4
  • Amy Heerema-McKenney
    • 5
  1. 1.Division of Anatomic Pathology, Department of PathologyBoston Children’s HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Women’s and Perinatal PathologyBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA
  3. 3.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  5. 5.Division of Anatomic Pathology, Robert J. Tomsich Pathology and Laboratory Medicine InstituteCleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA

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