Extramedullary Haemopoiesis

  • Luiz Cesar Peres


Blood cell production starts within the yolk sac during the third week of gestation, from where haematopoietic stem cells colonise the umbilical cord and aorta-gonad-mesonephros region and then the liver. By term, the bone marrow is the main site of blood cell production. Extramedullary haemopoiesis (EMH) is defined as blood cell production outside the bone marrow and, in the placenta, it happens within the villous stroma. Prolonged hypoxia and/or anaemia, usually associated with hydrops fetalis, may induce placental EMH, where a central macrophage provides the adequate microenvironment for maturation of the erythroid precursors.


Nucleated red blood cells Extramedullary haemopoiesis Hydrops fetalis Intravascular haemopoiesis Erythroblast precursors 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of HistopathologySheffield Children’s NHS Foundation TrustSheffieldUK
  2. 2.University of SheffieldSheffieldUK

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