Persistence of Cytotrophoblast

  • T. Yee KhongEmail author


Villous cytotrophoblastic cells, which form a complete layer in early pregnancy, become dispersed beneath the syncytiotrophoblast as pregnancy progresses and are largely inconspicuous in late pregnancy. Histologically, at term gestation, cytotrophoblastic cell may indent beneath or apparently be embedded within the syncytial layer; rarely, a complete mantle of cytotrophoblast is present. There is currently no universally accepted definition of an excessive number of villous cytotrophoblastic cells; a proposed workable definition is presented. Further work is urgently needed to clarify the clinical significance of this morphologic feature.


Villous cytotrophoblast Hypoxia 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SA PathologyWomen’s and Children’s HospitalNorth AdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.University of AdelaideNorth AdelaideAustralia

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