Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia

  • Debra S. HellerEmail author


Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental lesion that can be mistaken for a molar gestation. This is due to the cystic structures seen on the fetal surface, which can be misinterpreted as molar villi both grossly and on ultrasonography. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is characterized by cystic dilatation and oedema of stem villi and vascular abnormalities including tortuosity, aneurysmal dilatation and thrombosis of vessels on the fetal surface and in stem villi.


  1. 1.
    Pawoo N, Heller DS. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014;138:1247–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Faye-Petersen OM, Kapur RP. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Surg Pathol. 2013;6:127–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moscoso G, Juneau E, Hustin J. Placental vascular anomaly with diffuse mesenchymal stem villous hyperplasia: a new clinico-pathologic entity? Pathol Res Pract. 1991;187:324–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Simeone S, Franchi C, Marchi L, et al. Management of placental mesenchymal dysplasia associated with fetal anemia and IUGR. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2015;184:132–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Woo GW, Rocha FG, Gaspar-Oishi M, Bartholomew ML, Thompson KS. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;205:e3–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Parveen Z, Tongson-Ignacio JE, Fraser CR, Killeen JL, Thompson KS. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131:131–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pham T, Steele J, Stayboldt C, Chan L, Benirschke K. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is associated with high rates of intrauterine growth restriction and fetal demise. Am J Clin Pathol. 2006;126:67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Himoto Y, Kido A, Minamiguchi S, et al. Prenatal differential diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole with a twin live fetus and placental mesenchymal dysplasia by magnetic resonance imaging. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2014;40:1894–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nayeri UA, West AB, Grossetta Nardini HK, Copel JA, Sfakianakis AK. Systemic review of sonographic findings of placental mesenchymal dysplasia and subsequent pregnancy outcome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013;41:366–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Linn RL, Minturn L, Yee LM, et al. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia without fetal development in a twin gestation: a case report and review of the spectrum of androgenetic biparental mosaicism. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2015;18:146–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ohyama M, Kojyo T, Gotoda H, Sato T, Ijiri R, Tanaka Y. Mesenchymal dysplasia of the placenta. Pathol Int. 2000;50:759–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ishikawa S, Morikawa M, Umazume T, et al. Anemia in a neonate with placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Clin Case Rep. 2016;4:463–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Francis B, Hallam L, Kecskes Z, Ellwood D, Croaker D, Kent A. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia associated with hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma in the newborn. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2007;10:50–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineRutgers New Jersey Medical SchoolNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations