Distal Villous Hypoplasia

  • Peter G. J. Nikkels
  • Carmen A. H. Severens-Rijvers


Distal villous hypoplasia is an abnormal development of placental villi with an apparent increase in intervillous space. The total number of villi is decreased in the centre of the placenta, and the terminal villi are extremely small on cut surface and long and slender, and the villi have fewer branches in comparison with normal villi. Distal villous hypoplasia is associated with low placental weight and fetal growth restriction with absent or reversed end-diastolic flow of the umbilical artery. Distal villous hypoplasia can be seen in normotensive or hypertensive pregnancies with severe fetal growth restriction.


Distal villous hypoplasia Fetal growth restriction Abnormal placental development Preeclampsia Intervillous hypoxia 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter G. J. Nikkels
    • 1
  • Carmen A. H. Severens-Rijvers
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of PathologyMaastricht University Medical CenterMaastrichtThe Netherlands

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