Lung Cancer

  • Ugur Selek
  • Duygu Sezen
  • Yasemin Bolukbasi


This chapter on lung cancers is aiming to summarize the evidence-based current management for small cell and non-small cell lung cancer. We hope to ease the understanding in the appropriate delineation of tumor volumes/fields along with related case presentations covering diagnostic images, contouring, slice by slice final plan examples; accompanied by up-to-date key literature review.


  1. 1.
    Aberle DR, Adams AM, Berg CD, Black WC, Clapp JD, Fagerstrom RM, Gareen IF, Gatsonis C, Marcus PM, Sicks JD. Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(5):395–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sholl LM. Biomarkers in lung adenocarcinoma: a decade of progress. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015;139(4):469–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lindeman NI, Cagle PT, Beasley MB, Chitale DA, Dacic S, Giaccone G, Jenkins RB, Kwiatkowski DJ, Saldivar JS, Squire J, et al. Molecular testing guideline for selection of lung cancer patients for EGFR and ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors: guideline from the College of American Pathologists, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, and Association for Molecular Pathology. J Thorac Oncol. 2013;8(7):823–59.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Herbst RS, Baas P, Kim DW, Felip E, Perez-Gracia JL, Han JY, Molina J, Kim JH, Arvis CD, Ahn MJ, et al. Pembrolizumab versus docetaxel for previously treated, PD-L1-positive, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (KEYNOTE-010): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016;387(10027):1540–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Topkan E, Parlak C, Selek U. Impact of weight change during the course of concurrent chemoradiation therapy on outcomes in stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer patients: retrospective analysis of 425 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;87(4):697–704.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stinchcombe TE, Hodgson L, Herndon JE 2nd, Kelley MJ, Cicchetti MG, Ramnath N, Niell HB, Atkins JN, Akerley W, Green MR, et al. Treatment outcomes of different prognostic groups of patients on cancer and leukemia group B trial 39801: induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy compared with chemoradiotherapy alone for unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2009;4(9):1117–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Albain KS, Crowley JJ, LeBlanc M, Livingston RB. Survival determinants in extensive-stage non-small-cell lung cancer: the Southwest Oncology Group experience. J Clin Oncol. 1991;9(9):1618–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mountain CF. Revisions in the international system for staging lung cancer. Chest. 1997;111(6):1710–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Edge SB, Compton CC. The American Joint Committee on Cancer: the 7th edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual and the future of TNM. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17(6):1471–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Detterbeck FC. The eighth edition TNM stage classification for lung cancer: what does it mean on main street? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2018;155(1):356–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goldstraw P, Chansky K, Crowley J, Rami-Porta R, Asamura H, Eberhardt WE, Nicholson AG, Groome P, Mitchell A, Bolejack V. The IASLC lung cancer staging project: proposals for revision of the TNM stage groupings in the forthcoming (eighth) edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2016;11(1):39–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carter BW, Lichtenberger JP 3rd, Benveniste MK, de Groot PM, Wu CC, Erasmus JJ, Truong MT. Revisions to the TNM staging of lung cancer: rationale, significance, and clinical application. Radiographics. 2018;38(2):374–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer). Cancer staging manual. 8th ed. Chicago: Springer; 2017.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rami-Porta R, Bolejack V, Crowley J, Ball D, Kim J, Lyons G, Rice T, Suzuki K, Thomas CF Jr, Travis WD, et al. The IASLC lung cancer staging project: proposals for the revisions of the T descriptors in the forthcoming eighth edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2015;10(7):990–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ginsberg RJ, Rubinstein LV. Randomized trial of lobectomy versus limited resection for T1 N0 non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer Study Group. Ann Thorac Surg. 1995;60(3):615–22. Discussion 622–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Manser R, Wright G, Hart D, Byrnes G, Campbell DA. Surgery for early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;1:CD004699.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lardinois D, De Leyn P, Van Schil P, Porta RR, Waller D, Passlick B, Zielinski M, Lerut T, Weder W. ESTS guidelines for intraoperative lymph node staging in non-small cell lung cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2006;30(5):787–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Senthi S, Lagerwaard FJ, Haasbeek CJ, Slotman BJ, Senan S. Patterns of disease recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for early stage non-small-cell lung cancer: a retrospective analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(8):802–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Verstegen NE, Lagerwaard FJ, Haasbeek CJ, Slotman BJ, Senan S. Outcomes of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy following a clinical diagnosis of stage I NSCLC: comparison with a contemporaneous cohort with pathologically proven disease. Radiother Oncol. 2011;101(2):250–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Inoue T, Shimizu S, Onimaru R, Takeda A, Onishi H, Nagata Y, Kimura T, Karasawa K, Arimoto T, Hareyama M, et al. Clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy for small lung lesions clinically diagnosed as primary lung cancer on radiologic examination. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;75(3):683–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Timmerman RD, Hu C, Michalski J, Straube W, Galvin J, Johnstone D, Bradley J, Barriger R, Bezjak A, Videtic GM, et al. Long-term results of RTOG 0236: a phase II trial of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of patients with medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;90(Suppl 1):S30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chi A, Liao Z, Nguyen NP, Xu J, Stea B, Komaki R. Systemic review of the patterns of failure following stereotactic body radiation therapy in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer: clinical implications. Radiother Oncol. 2010;94(1):1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Raz DJ, Zell JA, Ou SH, Gandara DR, Anton-Culver H, Jablons DM. Natural history of stage I non-small cell lung cancer: implications for early detection. Chest. 2007;132(1):193–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Onishi H, Shirato H, Nagata Y, Hiraoka M, Fujino M, Gomi K, Karasawa K, Hayakawa K, Niibe Y, Takai Y, et al. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for operable stage I non-small-cell lung cancer: can SBRT be comparable to surgery? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81(5):1352–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Videtic GMM, Donington J, Giuliani M, Heinzerling J, Karas TZ, Kelsey CR, Lally BE, Latzka K, Lo SS, Moghanaki D, et al. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer: executive summary of an ASTRO evidence-based guideline. Pract Radiat Oncol. 2017;7(5):295–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rwigema JC, Lee P. Is staging mediastinoscopy necessary before stereotactic body radiotherapy for inoperable early stage lung cancer? J Thorac Dis. 2015;7(12):E612–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rwigema JC, Chen AM, Wang PC, Lee JM, Garon E, Lee P. Incidental mediastinal dose does not explain low mediastinal node recurrence rates in patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy. Clin Lung Cancer. 2014;15(4):287–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Crabtree TD, Denlinger CE, Meyers BF, El Naqa I, Zoole J, Krupnick AS, Kreisel D, Patterson GA, Bradley JD. Stereotactic body radiation therapy versus surgical resection for stage I non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;140(2):377–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Parashar B, Patel P, Monni S, Singh P, Sood N, Trichter S, Sabbas A, Wernicke AG, Nori D, Chao KS. Limited resection followed by intraoperative seed implantation is comparable to stereotactic body radiotherapy for solitary lung cancer. Cancer. 2010;116(21):5047–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Grills IS, Mangona VS, Welsh R, Chmielewski G, McInerney E, Martin S, Wloch J, Ye H, Kestin LL. Outcomes after stereotactic lung radiotherapy or wedge resection for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(6):928–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stanic S, Paulus R, Timmerman RD, Michalski JM, Barriger RB, Bezjak A, Videtic GM, Bradley J. No clinically significant changes in pulmonary function following stereotactic body radiation therapy for early-stage peripheral non-small cell lung cancer: an analysis of RTOG 0236. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;88(5):1092–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Crabtree T, Puri V, Timmerman R, Fernando H, Bradley J, Decker PA, Paulus R, Putnum JB Jr, Dupuy DE, Meyers B. Treatment of stage I lung cancer in high-risk and inoperable patients: comparison of prospective clinical trials using stereotactic body radiotherapy (RTOG 0236), sublobar resection (ACOSOG Z4032), and radiofrequency ablation (ACOSOG Z4033). J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2013;145(3):692–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Haasbeek CJ, Senan S, Smit EF, Paul MA, Slotman BJ, Lagerwaard FJ. Critical review of nonsurgical treatment options for stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Oncologist. 2008;13(3):309–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lagerwaard FJ, Verstegen NE, Haasbeek CJ, Slotman BJ, Paul MA, Smit EF, Senan S. Outcomes of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in patients with potentially operable stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83(1):348–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Onishi H, Araki T. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer: a historical overview of clinical studies. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2013;43(4):345–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Varlotto J, Fakiris A, Flickinger J, Medford-Davis L, Liss A, Shelkey J, Belani C, DeLuca J, Recht A, Maheshwari N, et al. Matched-pair and propensity score comparisons of outcomes of patients with clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer treated with resection or stereotactic radiosurgery. Cancer. 2013;119(15):2683–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yoshitake T, Nakamura K, Shioyama Y, Sasaki T, Ohga S, Shinoto M, Terashima K, Asai K, Matsumoto K, Matsuo Y, et al. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for primary lung cancers clinically diagnosed without pathological confirmation: a single-institution experience. Int J Clin Oncol. 2015;20(1):53–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Solda F, Lodge M, Ashley S, Whitington A, Goldstraw P, Brada M. Stereotactic radiotherapy (SABR) for the treatment of primary non-small cell lung cancer; systematic review and comparison with a surgical cohort. Radiother Oncol. 2013;109(1):1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zheng X, Schipper M, Kidwell K, Lin J, Reddy R, Ren Y, Chang A, Lv F, Orringer M, Spring Kong FM. Survival outcome after stereotactic body radiation therapy and surgery for stage I non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;90(3):603–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chang JY, Senan S, Paul MA, Mehran RJ, Louie AV, Balter P, Groen HJ, McRae SE, Widder J, Feng L, et al. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy versus lobectomy for operable stage I non-small-cell lung cancer: a pooled analysis of two randomised trials. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(6):630–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yalman D, Selek U. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) in operable early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients: challenge to claim being undisputed gold standard. Ann Transl Med. 2015;3(11):150.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Moghanaki D, Chang JY. Is surgery still the optimal treatment for stage I non-small cell lung cancer? Transl Lung Cancer Res. 2016;5(2):183–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yu XJ, Dai WR, Xu Y. Survival outcome after stereotactic body radiation therapy and surgery for early stage non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis. J Invest Surg. 2017:1–8.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Li M, Yang X, Chen Y, Yang X, Dai X, Sun F, Zhang L, Zhan C, Feng M, Wang Q. Stereotactic body radiotherapy or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy versus surgery for patients with T1-3N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Onco Targets Ther. 2017;10:2885–92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rodrigues G, Choy H, Bradley J, Rosenzweig KE, Bogart J, Curran WJ Jr, Gore E, Langer C, Louie AV, Lutz S, et al. Definitive radiation therapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: executive summary of an American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) evidence-based clinical practice guideline. Pract Radiat Oncol. 2015;5(3):141–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rodrigues G, Choy H, Bradley J, Rosenzweig KE, Bogart J, Curran WJ Jr, Gore E, Langer C, Louie AV, Lutz S, et al. Adjuvant radiation therapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: executive summary of an American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) evidence-based clinical practice guideline. Pract Radiat Oncol. 2015;5(3):149–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bezjak A, Temin S, Franklin G, Giaccone G, Govindan R, Johnson ML, Rimner A, Schneider BJ, Strawn J, Azzoli CG. Definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline endorsement of the American Society for Radiation Oncology evidence-based clinical practice guideline. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(18):2100–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lee PC, Port JL, Korst RJ, Liss Y, Meherally DN, Altorki NK. Risk factors for occult mediastinal metastases in clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;84(1):177–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    De Leyn P, Lardinois D, Van Schil P, Rami-Porta R, Passlick B, Zielinski M, Waller D, Lerut T, Weder W. European trends in preoperative and intraoperative nodal staging: ESTS guidelines. J Thorac Oncol. 2007;2(4):357–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wang EH, Corso CD, Rutter CE, Park HS, Chen AB, Kim AW, Wilson LD, Decker RH, Yu JB. Postoperative radiation therapy is associated with improved overall survival in incompletely resected stage II and III non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(25):2727–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Douillard JY, Rosell R, De Lena M, Carpagnano F, Ramlau R, Gonzales-Larriba JL, Grodzki T, Pereira JR, Le Groumellec A, Lorusso V, et al. Adjuvant vinorelbine plus cisplatin versus observation in patients with completely resected stage IB-IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer (Adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association [ANITA]): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2006;7(9):719–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Douillard JY, Rosell R, De Lena M, Riggi M, Hurteloup P, Mahe MA. Impact of postoperative radiation therapy on survival in patients with complete resection and stage I, II, or IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy: the adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association (ANITA) randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;72(3):695–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lee JH, Machtay M, Kaiser LR, Friedberg JS, Hahn SM, McKenna MG, McKenna WG. Non-small cell lung cancer: prognostic factors in patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. Radiology. 1999;213(3):845–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rodrigus P. The impact of surgical adjuvant thoracic radiation for different stages of non-small cell lung cancer: the experience from a single institution. Lung Cancer. 1999;23(1):11–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lee SW, Choi EK, Chung WK, Shin KH, Ahn SD, Kim JH, Kim SW, Suh C, Lee JS, Kim WS, et al. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy for stage II and III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung Cancer. 2002;37(1):65–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    El-Sherif A, Fernando HC, Santos R, Pettiford B, Luketich JD, Close JM, Landreneau RJ. Margin and local recurrence after sublobar resection of non-small cell lung cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14(8):2400–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sawabata N, Maeda H, Matsumura A, Ohta M, Okumura M. Clinical implications of the margin cytology findings and margin/tumor size ratio in patients who underwent pulmonary excision for peripheral non-small cell lung cancer. Surg Today. 2012;42(3):238–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tomaszek SC, Kim Y, Cassivi SD, Jensen MR, Shen KH, Nichols FC, Deschamps C, Wigle DA. Bronchial resection margin length and clinical outcome in non-small cell lung cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011;40(5):1151–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gomez DR, Komaki R. Postoperative radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer and thymic malignancies. Cancers. 2012;4:307–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    The Lung Cancer Study Group. Effects of postoperative mediastinal radiation on completely resected stage II and stage III epidermoid cancer of the lung. N Engl J Med. 1986;315(22):1377–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mayer R, Smolle-Juettner FM, Szolar D, Stuecklschweiger GF, Quehenberger F, Friehs G, Hackl A. Postoperative radiotherapy in radically resected non-small cell lung cancer. Chest. 1997;112(4):954–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dautzenberg B, Arriagada R, Chammard AB, Jarema A, Mezzetti M, Mattson K, Lagrange JL, Le Pechoux C, Lebeau B, Chastang C. A controlled study of postoperative radiotherapy for patients with completely resected nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. Groupe d’Etude et de Traitement des Cancers Bronchiques. Cancer. 1999;86(2):265–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Feng QF, Wang M, Wang LJ, Yang ZY, Zhang YG, Zhang DW, Yin WB. A study of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000;47(4):925–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Trodella L, Granone P, Valente S, Valentini V, Balducci M, Mantini G, Turriziani A, Margaritora S, Cesario A, Ramella S, et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer with pathological stage I: definitive results of a phase III randomized trial. Radiother Oncol. 2002;62(1):11–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Le Pechoux C, Dunant A, Pignon JP, De Ruysscher D, Mornex F, Senan S, Casas F, Price A, Milleron B. Need for a new trial to evaluate adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with N2 mediastinal involvement. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(7):e10–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Le Pechoux C. Role of postoperative radiotherapy in resected non-small cell lung cancer: a reassessment based on new data. Oncologist. 2011;16(5):672–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Spoelstra FO, Senan S, Le Pechoux C, Ishikura S, Casas F, Ball D, Price A, De Ruysscher D, van Sornsen de Koste JR. Variations in target volume definition for postoperative radiotherapy in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer: analysis of an international contouring study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76(4):1106–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lally BE, Zelterman D, Colasanto JM, Haffty BG, Detterbeck FC, Wilson LD. Postoperative radiotherapy for stage II or III non-small-cell lung cancer using the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(19):2998–3006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    PORT Meta-analysis Trialists Group. Postoperative radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from nine randomised controlled trials. Lancet. 1998;352(9124):257–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Burdett S, Stewart L. Postoperative radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer: update of an individual patient data meta-analysis. Lung Cancer. 2005;47(1):81–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Burdett S, Rydzewska L, Tierney JF, Fisher DJ. A closer look at the effects of postoperative radiotherapy by stage and nodal status: updated results of an individual participant data meta-analysis in non-small-cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2013;80(3):350–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Billiet C, Decaluwe H, Peeters S, Vansteenkiste J, Dooms C, Haustermans K, De Leyn P, De Ruysscher D. Modern post-operative radiotherapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer may improve local control and survival: a meta-analysis. Radiother Oncol. 2014;110(1):3–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mikell JL, Gillespie TW, Hall WA, Nickleach DC, Liu Y, Lipscomb J, Ramalingam SS, Rajpara RS, Force SD, Fernandez FG, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy is associated with better survival in non-small cell lung cancer with involved N2 lymph nodes: results of an analysis of the National Cancer Data Base. J Thorac Oncol. 2015;10(3):462–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Robinson CG, Patel AP, Bradley JD, DeWees T, Waqar SN, Morgensztern D, Baggstrom MQ, Govindan R, Bell JM, Guthrie TJ, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy for pathologic N2 non-small-cell lung cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy: a review of the National Cancer Data Base. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(8):870–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Matsuguma H, Nakahara R, Ishikawa Y, Suzuki H, Inoue K, Katano S, Yokoi K. Postoperative radiotherapy for patients with completely resected pathological stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer: focusing on an effect of the number of mediastinal lymph node stations involved. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2008;7(4):573–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Saji H, Tsuboi M, Yoshida K, Kato Y, Nomura M, Matsubayashi J, Nagao T, Kakihana M, Usuda J, Kajiwara N, et al. Prognostic impact of number of resected and involved lymph nodes at complete resection on survival in non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2011;6(11):1865–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Urban D, Bar J, Solomon B, Ball D. Lymph node ratio may predict the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2013;8(7):940–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lopez Guerra JL, Gomez DR, Lin SH, Levy LB, Zhuang Y, Komaki R, Jaen J, Vaporciyan AA, Swisher SG, Cox JD, et al. Risk factors for local and regional recurrence in patients with resected N0-N1 non-small-cell lung cancer, with implications for patient selection for adjuvant radiation therapy. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(1):67–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hui Z, Dai H, Liang J, Lv J, Zhou Z, Feng Q, Xiao Z, Chen D, Zhang H, Yin W, et al. Selection of proper candidates with resected pathological stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer for postoperative radiotherapy. Thorac Cancer. 2015;6(3):346–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pless M, Stupp R, Ris HB, Stahel RA, Weder W, Thierstein S, Gerard MA, Xyrafas A, Fruh M, Cathomas R, et al. Induction chemoradiation in stage IIIA/N2 non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase 3 randomised trial. Lancet. 2015;386(9998):1049–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Shah AA, Berry MF, Tzao C, Gandhi M, Worni M, Pietrobon R, D’Amico TA. Induction chemoradiation is not superior to induction chemotherapy alone in stage IIIA lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;93(6):1807–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Auperin A, Le Pechoux C, Rolland E, Curran WJ, Furuse K, Fournel P, Belderbos J, Clamon G, Ulutin HC, Paulus R, et al. Meta-analysis of concomitant versus sequential radiochemotherapy in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(13):2181–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Albain KS, Rusch VW, Crowley JJ, Rice TW, Turrisi AT 3rd, Weick JK, Lonchyna VA, Presant CA, McKenna RJ, Gandara DR, et al. Concurrent cisplatin/etoposide plus chest radiotherapy followed by surgery for stages IIIA (N2) and IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer: mature results of Southwest Oncology Group phase II study 8805. J Clin Oncol. 1995;13(8):1880–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Burkes RL, Shepherd FA, Blackstein ME, Goldberg ME, Waters PF, Patterson GA, Todd T, Pearson FG, Jones D, Farooq S, et al. Induction chemotherapy with mitomycin, vindesine, and cisplatin for stage IIIA (T1-3, N2) unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer: final results of the Toronto phase II trial. Lung Cancer. 2005;47(1):103–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Weiden PL, Piantadosi S. Preoperative chemotherapy (cisplatin and fluorouracil) and radiation therapy in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase II study of the Lung Cancer Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991;83(4):266–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Albain KS, Swann RS, Rusch VW, Turrisi AT 3rd, Shepherd FA, Smith C, Chen Y, Livingston RB, Feins RH, Gandara DR, et al. Radiotherapy plus chemotherapy with or without surgical resection for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase III randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009;374(9687):379–86.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    van Meerbeeck JP, Kramer GW, Van Schil PE, Legrand C, Smit EF, Schramel F, Tjan-Heijnen VC, Biesma B, Debruyne C, van Zandwijk N, et al. Randomized controlled trial of resection versus radiotherapy after induction chemotherapy in stage IIIA-N2 non-small-cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99(6):442–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Eberhardt WE, Pottgen C, Gauler TC, Friedel G, Veit S, Heinrich V, Welter S, Budach W, Spengler W, Kimmich M, et al. Phase III study of surgery versus definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy boost in patients with resectable stage IIIA(N2) and selected IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer after induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (ESPATUE). J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(35):4194–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Curran WJ Jr, Paulus R, Langer CJ, Komaki R, Lee JS, Hauser S, Movsas B, Wasserman T, Rosenthal SA, Gore E, et al. Sequential vs. concurrent chemoradiation for stage III non-small cell lung cancer: randomized phase III trial RTOG 9410. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103(19):1452–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Topkan E, Parlak C, Topuk S, Guler OC, Selek U. Outcomes of aggressive concurrent radiochemotherapy in highly selected septuagenarians with stage IIIB non-small cell lung carcinoma: retrospective analysis of 89 patients. Lung Cancer. 2013;81(2):226–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Antonia SJ, Villegas A, Daniel D, Vicente D, Murakami S, Hui R, Yokoi T, Chiappori A, Lee KH, de Wit M, et al. Durvalumab after chemoradiotherapy in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(20):1919–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sezen D, Bolukbasi Y, Topkan E, Selek U. Selection criteria for definitive treatment approach in thoracic malignancies: radiation oncology perspective. In: Ozyigit G, Selek U, Topkan E, editors. Principles and practice of radiotherapy techniques in thoracic malignancies. Cham: Springer International; 2016.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Seppenwoolde Y, Shirato H, Kitamura K, Shimizu S, van Herk M, Lebesque JV, Miyasaka K. Precise and real-time measurement of 3D tumor motion in lung due to breathing and heartbeat, measured during radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;53(4):822–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Shirato H, Suzuki K, Sharp GC, Fujita K, Onimaru R, Fujino M, Kato N, Osaka Y, Kinoshita R, Taguchi H, et al. Speed and amplitude of lung tumor motion precisely detected in four-dimensional setup and in real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;64(4):1229–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Liu HH, Balter P, Tutt T, Choi B, Zhang J, Wang C, Chi M, Luo D, Pan T, Hunjan S, et al. Assessing respiration-induced tumor motion and internal target volume using four-dimensional computed tomography for radiotherapy of lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;68(2):531–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Keall PJ, Mageras GS, Balter JM, Emery RS, Forster KM, Jiang SB, Kapatoes JM, Low DA, Murphy MJ, Murray BR, et al. The management of respiratory motion in radiation oncology report of AAPM Task Group 76. Med Phys. 2006;33(10):3874–900.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Chavaudra J, Bridier A. Definition of volumes in external radiotherapy: ICRU reports 50 and 62. Cancer Radiother. 2001;5(5):472–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Underberg RW, Lagerwaard FJ, Slotman BJ, Cuijpers JP, Senan S. Use of maximum intensity projections (MIP) for target volume generation in 4DCT scans for lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;63(1):253–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rietzel E, Liu AK, Chen GT, Choi NC. Maximum-intensity volumes for fast contouring of lung tumors including respiratory motion in 4DCT planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;71(4):1245–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ahnesjo A. Collapsed cone convolution of radiant energy for photon dose calculation in heterogeneous media. Med Phys. 1989;16(4):577–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Aarup LR, Nahum AE, Zacharatou C, Juhler-Nottrup T, Knoos T, Nystrom H, Specht L, Wieslander E, Korreman SS. The effect of different lung densities on the accuracy of various radiotherapy dose calculation methods: implications for tumour coverage. Radiother Oncol. 2009;91(3):405–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bragg CM, Conway J. Dosimetric verification of the anisotropic analytical algorithm for radiotherapy treatment planning. Radiother Oncol. 2006;81(3):315–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Bush K, Gagne IM, Zavgorodni S, Ansbacher W, Beckham W. Dosimetric validation of Acuros XB with Monte Carlo methods for photon dose calculations. Med Phys. 2011;38(4):2208–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Vanderstraeten B, Reynaert N, Paelinck L, Madani I, De Wagter C, De Gersem W, De Neve W, Thierens H. Accuracy of patient dose calculation for lung IMRT: a comparison of Monte Carlo, convolution/superposition, and pencil beam computations. Med Phys. 2006;33(9):3149–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Bortfeld T, Jokivarsi K, Goitein M, Kung J, Jiang SB. Effects of intra-fraction motion on IMRT dose delivery: statistical analysis and simulation. Phys Med Biol. 2002;47(13):2203–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lynch R, Pitson G, Ball D, Claude L, Sarrut D. Computed tomographic atlas for the new international lymph node map for lung cancer: a radiation oncologist perspective. Pract Radiat Oncol. 2013;3(1):54–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Giraud P, Antoine M, Larrouy A, Milleron B, Callard P, De Rycke Y, Carette MF, Rosenwald JC, Cosset JM, Housset M, et al. Evaluation of microscopic tumor extension in non-small-cell lung cancer for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000;48(4):1015–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Asamura H, Nakayama H, Kondo H, Tsuchiya R, Naruke T. Lobe-specific extent of systematic lymph node dissection for non-small cell lung carcinomas according to a retrospective study of metastasis and prognosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1999;117(6):1102–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Gomez DR, Chang JY. Adaptive radiation for lung cancer. J Oncol. 2011;2011.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Chang JY, Bezjak A, Mornex F. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for centrally located early stage non-small-cell lung cancer: what we have learned. J Thorac Oncol. 2015;10(4):577–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Zhao L, Zhou S, Balter P, Shen C, Gomez DR, Welsh JD, Lin SH, Chang JY. Planning target volume D95 and mean dose should be considered for optimal local control for stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016;95(4):1226–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Machtay M, Bae K, Movsas B, Paulus R, Gore EM, Komaki R, Albain K, Sause WT, Curran WJ. Higher biologically effective dose of radiotherapy is associated with improved outcomes for locally advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma treated with chemoradiation: an analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82(1):425–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ramella S, Trodella L, Mineo TC, Pompeo E, Stimato G, Gaudino D, Valentini V, Cellini F, Ciresa M, Fiore M, et al. Adding ipsilateral V20 and V30 to conventional dosimetric constraints predicts radiation pneumonitis in stage IIIA-B NSCLC treated with combined-modality therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76(1):110–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Jin H, Tucker SL, Liu HH, Wei X, Yom SS, Wang S, Komaki R, Chen Y, Martel MK, Mohan R, et al. Dose-volume thresholds and smoking status for the risk of treatment-related pneumonitis in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol. 2009;91(3):427–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kalemkerian GP. Staging and imaging of small cell lung cancer. Cancer Imaging. 2011;11:253–8.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Schneider BJ, Saxena A, Downey RJ. Surgery for early-stage small cell lung cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2011;9(10):1132–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    NCCN. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology. Small Cell Lung Cancer.
  118. 118.
    Yang CF, Chan DY, Speicher PJ, Gulack BC, Wang X, Hartwig MG, Onaitis MW, Tong BC, D’Amico TA, Berry MF, et al. Role of adjuvant therapy in a population-based cohort of patients with early-stage small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(10):1057–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Brock MV, Hooker CM, Syphard JE, Westra W, Xu L, Alberg AJ, Mason D, Baylin SB, Herman JG, Yung RC, et al. Surgical resection of limited disease small cell lung cancer in the new era of platinum chemotherapy: its time has come. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;129(1):64–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Warde P, Payne D. Does thoracic irradiation improve survival and local control in limited-stage small-cell carcinoma of the lung? A meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol. 1992;10(6):890–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Pignon JP, Arriagada R, Ihde DC, Johnson DH, Perry MC, Souhami RL, Brodin O, Joss RA, Kies MS, Lebeau B, et al. A meta-analysis of thoracic radiotherapy for small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 1992;327(23):1618–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Pignon JP, Arriagada R. Role of thoracic radiotherapy in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: quantitative review based on the literature versus meta-analysis based on individual data. J Clin Oncol. 1992;10(11):1819–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    De Ruysscher D, Pijls-Johannesma M, Bentzen SM, Minken A, Wanders R, Lutgens L, Hochstenbag M, Boersma L, Wouters B, Lammering G, et al. Time between the first day of chemotherapy and the last day of chest radiation is the most important predictor of survival in limited-disease small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(7):1057–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    De Ruysscher D, Pijls-Johannesma M, Vansteenkiste J, Kester A, Rutten I, Lambin P. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised, controlled trials of the timing of chest radiotherapy in patients with limited-stage, small-cell lung cancer. Ann Oncol. 2006;17(4):543–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Turrisi AT 3rd, Kim K, Blum R, Sause WT, Livingston RB, Komaki R, Wagner H, Aisner S, Johnson DH. Twice-daily compared with once-daily thoracic radiotherapy in limited small-cell lung cancer treated concurrently with cisplatin and etoposide. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(4):265–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Miller KL, Marks LB, Sibley GS, Clough RW, Garst JL, Crawford J, Shafman TD. Routine use of approximately 60 Gy once-daily thoracic irradiation for patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;56(2):355–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Roof KS, Fidias P, Lynch TJ, Ancukiewicz M, Choi NC. Radiation dose escalation in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;57(3):701–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Bogart JA, Herndon JE 2nd, Lyss AP, Watson D, Miller AA, Lee ME, Turrisi AT, Green MR. 70 Gy thoracic radiotherapy is feasible concurrent with chemotherapy for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: analysis of cancer and Leukemia Group B study 39808. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;59(2):460–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Fried DB, Morris DE, Poole C, Rosenman JG, Halle JS, Detterbeck FC, Hensing TA, Socinski MA. Systematic review evaluating the timing of thoracic radiation therapy in combined modality therapy for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(23):4837–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Huncharek M, McGarry R. A meta-analysis of the timing of chest irradiation in the combined modality treatment of limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Oncologist. 2004;9(6):665–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Komaki R, Paulus R, Ettinger DS, Videtic GM, Bradley JD, Glisson BS, Langer CJ, Sause WT, Curran WJ Jr, Choy H. Phase II study of accelerated high-dose radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for patients with limited small-cell lung cancer: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0239. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83(4):e531–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Faivre-Finn C, Snee M, Ashcroft L, Appel W, Barlesi F, Bhatnagar A, Bezjak A, Cardenal F, Fournel P, Harden S, et al. Concurrent once-daily versus twice-daily chemoradiotherapy in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (CONVERT): an open-label, phase 3, randomised, superiority trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017;18(8):1116–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Slotman BJ, van Tinteren H, Praag JO, Knegjens JL, El Sharouni SY, Hatton M, Keijser A, Faivre-Finn C, Senan S. Use of thoracic radiotherapy for extensive stage small-cell lung cancer: a phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015;385(9962):36–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Zhu H, Zhou Z, Wang Y, Bi N, Feng Q, Li J, Lv J, Chen D, Shi Y, Wang L. Thoracic radiation therapy improves the overall survival of patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer with distant metastasis. Cancer. 2011;117(23):5423–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Giuliani ME, Atallah S, Sun A, Bezjak A, Le LW, Brade A, Cho J, Leighl NB, Shepherd FA, Hope AJ. Clinical outcomes of extensive stage small cell lung carcinoma patients treated with consolidative thoracic radiotherapy. Clin Lung Cancer. 2011;12(6):375–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Jeremic B, Shibamoto Y, Nikolic N, Milicic B, Milisavljevic S, Dagovic A, Aleksandrovic J, Radosavljevic-Asic G. Role of radiation therapy in the combined-modality treatment of patients with extensive disease small-cell lung cancer: a randomized study. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17(7):2092–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Palma DA, Warner A, Louie AV, Senan S, Slotman B, Rodrigues GB. Thoracic radiotherapy for extensive stage small-cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Clin Lung Cancer. 2016;17(4):239–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Gore EM, Hu C, Sun AY, Grimm DF, Ramalingam SS, Dunlap NE, Higgins KA, Werner-Wasik M, Allen AM, Iyengar P, et al. Randomized phase II study comparing prophylactic cranial irradiation alone to prophylactic cranial irradiation and consolidative extracranial irradiation for extensive-disease small cell lung cancer (ED SCLC): NRG Oncology RTOG 0937. J Thorac Oncol. 2017;12(10):1561–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Auperin A, Arriagada R, Pignon JP, Le Pechoux C, Gregor A, Stephens RJ, Kristjansen PE, Johnson BE, Ueoka H, Wagner H, et al. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Overview Collaborative Group. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(7):476–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Le Pechoux C, Dunant A, Senan S, Wolfson A, Quoix E, Faivre-Finn C, Ciuleanu T, Arriagada R, Jones R, Wanders R, et al. Standard-dose versus higher-dose prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer in complete remission after chemotherapy and thoracic radiotherapy (PCI 99-01, EORTC 22003-08004, RTOG 0212, and IFCT 99-01): a randomised clinical trial. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10(5):467–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Gondi V, Pugh SL, Tome WA, Caine C, Corn B, Kanner A, Rowley H, Kundapur V, DeNittis A, Greenspoon JN, et al. Preservation of memory with conformal avoidance of the hippocampal neural stem-cell compartment during whole-brain radiotherapy for brain metastases (RTOG 0933): a phase II multi-institutional trial. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(34):3810–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Slotman BJ, Faivre-Finn C, Kramer GW, Rankin E, Snee M, Hatton M, Postmus PE, Collette L, Musat E, Senan S. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with extensive disease caused by small-cell lung cancer responsive to chemotherapy: fewer symptomatic brain metastases and improved survival. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2008;152(17):1000–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Takahashi T, Yamanaka T, Seto T, Harada H, Nokihara H, Saka H, Nishio M, Kaneda H, Takayama K, Ishimoto O, et al. Prophylactic cranial irradiation versus observation in patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017;18(5):663–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    van Loon J, De Ruysscher D, Wanders R, Boersma L, Simons J, Oellers M, Dingemans AM, Hochstenbag M, Bootsma G, Geraedts W, et al. Selective nodal irradiation on basis of (18)FDG-PET scans in limited-disease small-cell lung cancer: a prospective study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77(2):329–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Shirvani SM, Komaki R, Heymach JV, Fossella FV, Chang JY. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82(1):e91–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ugur Selek
    • 1
    • 2
  • Duygu Sezen
    • 1
  • Yasemin Bolukbasi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Radiation Oncology, School of MedicineKoç UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations