Racialization of Gender, Work, and the Visible Minority Women at Workplace: With a Particular Focus on African Black Women in Canada

  • Thoko Ngwenya
Part of the Critical Studies of Education book series (CSOE, volume 9)


Racism and racialization of migrant workers and immigrants in Canada have a long standing history dating back to the 1800s when the Chinese men built the Canadian Pacific Railway, and the Black Caribbean workers entered Canada in the 1900s. The systemic racism and racialization of migrant workers does not only affect the Black women, but also the majority of migrant workers and immigrants from the former colonial countries like Africa, Latin America and Asia. The problematic and disturbing approach to this narrative is that even when Canada considers itself as a country of immigrants, that is multi-cultured, diverse and inclusive, the labour market does not have equitable and equal access for visible minority Black women even with the Canadian credentials or internationally trained professionals with several years of experience from their ‘home’ country. The system does not recognize the migrant workers and immigrants who are legally allowed to work in Canada, Permanent Residents and or Canadian citizens. Regardless of one’s profession, credentials or experience, Canada would sideline migrant workers and immigrants to cheap and expandable labour. Black women in particular face the worst of conditions on discrimination and racialization. Canada’s labour force is highly gendered, raced and classed.


Black feminism Racism Hegemony Institutionalized racism Racialization Colonialism Decolonial Anti-racism Gendered labour Multi-culturalism 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.OISE, University of TorontoTorontoCanada

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