Classification of Frontal Recess Cells and Extent of Surgery

  • Alkis James Psaltis
  • Peter-John Wormald


The frontal recess and sinus displays highly variable anatomy. This is largely due to the different pneumatization patterns of ethmoidal cells around and within the frontal recess. Although numerous classification and nomenclature systems have been proposed in an attempt to clarify the anatomy of this region, they lack optimal clarity and ease of use. This chapter reviews the cellular anatomy of the frontal recess and proposes a new, easy to use and intuitive classification system for describing frontal anatomy. In addition, we also introduce an additional classification system to describe the extent of surgery to the frontal sinus, as well as grading the difficulty of surgery to this region. We believe that these new systems will replace the more traditional classification systems and facilitate better training, reporting and communication thus ultimately improving frontal surgery outcomes.


Frontal sinus Frontal recess Anatomy Classification Sinus anatomy Sinus surgery Radiology Frontal sinusotomy IFAC EFSS: ICC 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alkis James Psaltis
    • 1
  • Peter-John Wormald
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck SurgeryThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

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