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Cardiovascular Diseases in the Very Elderly

  • Logan Kanagaratnam
Chapter

Abstract

The percentage of the elderly above the age of 85 years is expected to more than double in the next 40 years. As age advances, there are alterations in structure and function of the heart and vasculature. This age group is especially at risk for cardiovascular diseases. This review summarises the main group of cardiac disorders with the focus on the prevalence and diagnosis. It will highlight the improvements that have occurred in clinical care and the current evidence for some therapeutic strategies, their effects and/or adverse effects in the extreme elderly. Not many subjects of this age group have been included in major cardiovascular clinical trials. In males more than 75 years, about 75% have systolic hypertension. Elderly tend to have more complex coronary disease. Heart failure is a common cause of hospital admission in elderly. More than 10% of the 80 plus age group have significant arrhythmia. Aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation are the commonest valvular dysfunctions encountered in the very elderly. Due to increased number of elderly having pacemakers and prosthetic valves, the potential pool for endocarditis has been increasing.

Keywords

Cardiovascular disease Extremely elderly Hypertension Coronary artery disease Heart failure Atrial fibrillation Cardiac arrhythmia Valvular heart disease Infective endocarditis 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Logan Kanagaratnam
    • 1
  1. 1.Royal North Shore, Ryde, North Shore Private and Macquarie University Hospitals, University of SydneySt. LeonardsAustralia

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