Advertisement

Lest They Forget: Exploring Commemoration and Remembrance Through Games and Digital Technologies

  • Iain Donald
Chapter

Abstract

The centennial of the First World War has encouraged a wide range of projects to commemorate the participants and communities affected by the conflict. This chapter considers how games and interactivity can be used to enhance commemoration and remembrance with new audiences. The digital commemorations undertaken for the Battle of Loos, and as part of the wider “Great War Dundee” project, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on how game design techniques and technology were utilized to plan an empathy game and then further developed into the interactive documentary and visualization, Loos: The Fallen Fourth. The chapter concludes with a consideration of how these narratives engaged with the community and helped shape a wider understanding. The digital components of this project can be accessed via greatwardundee.com and greatwardundee.itch.io.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research presented here was funded by the Nine Trades of Dundee through their internship programme and was part of the Heritage Lottery Funded Great War Dundee project. The author gratefully acknowledges the financial support and thanks all the partners of the Great War Dundee project.

References

  1. “About.” Greatwardundee.com. Accessed February 8, 2018. https://www.greatwardundee.com/about/.
  2. “About – Partner Information.” greatwardundee.com. Accessed February 8, 2018. https://www.greatwardundee.com/about/partner-information.
  3. Andersen, Robin, and Marin Kurti. “From America’s Army to Call of Duty: Doing Battle with the Military Entertainment Complex.” Democratic Communiqué 23, no. 1 (2009). http://journals.fcla.edu/demcom/article/view/76373.
  4. Bogost, Ian. “Comparative Video Game Criticism.” Games and Culture 1, no. 1 (2006): 41–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brathwaite, Brenda. Gaming for Understanding (Online Video, November, 2011). http://www.ted.com/talks/brenda_brathwaite_gaming_for_understanding.
  6. Brathwaite, Brenda, and John Sharp. “The Mechanic Is the Message: A Post Mortem in Progress.” In Ethics and Game Design: Teaching Values Through Play, edited by Karen Schrier and David Gibson, 311–329. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2010.Google Scholar
  7. “Dundee’s Glorious Dead.” The People’s Journal, May 16, 1925.Google Scholar
  8. Elliott, Andrew B.R., and Matthew Wilhelm Kapell. Playing with the Past: Digital Games and the Simulation of History. United States: Continuum Publishing, 2013.Google Scholar
  9. Fahey, Rob. “A Question of Maturity.” Gamesindustry.Biz., Posted July 6, 2012. http://www.gamesindustry.biz/articles/2012-07-06-a-question-of-maturity.
  10. Fullerton, Tracy. “Documentary Games: Putting the Player in the Path of History.” Playing the Past: Nostalgia in Video Games and Electronic Literature (2008): 215–238.Google Scholar
  11. Galloway, Dayna, Kenneth B. McAlpine, and Paul Harris. “From Michael Moore to JFK Reloaded: Towards a Working Model of Interactive Documentary.” Journal of Media Practice 8, no. 3 (2007): 325–339.  https://doi.org/10.1386/jmpr.8.3.325_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gillen, Kieron. “Retrospective: Cannon Fodder.” Posted November 11, 2007. http://www.rockpapershotgun.com/2007/11/11/retrospective-cannon-fodder/.
  13. Griffin, Ben. “Reinstall: Brothers in Arms.” Accessed February 8, 2018. http://www.pcgamer.com/reinstall-brothers-in-arms/.
  14. Herz, Jessie Cameron. Joystick Nation: How Videogames Ate Our Quarters, Won Our Hearts, and Rewired Our Minds. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, and Co, 1997.Google Scholar
  15. Hussey, David. “Commemoration, Video Games, and Remembrance Day.” playthepast.org, 2014. Accessed December 15, 2017. http://www.playthepast.org/?p=5026.
  16. International Committee of the Red Cross. Video Games and Law of War (Online Video, September 27, 2013). https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/film/2013/09-28-ihl-video-games.htm.
  17. International Committee of the Red Cross. Video Games Get Real (Online Video, September 29, 2013). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SlIJNgeuRc.
  18. Jenkins, David. “Konami Drops Controversial Six Days in Fallujah.” Gamasutra, April 27, 2009. http://www.gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story=23367.
  19. Jenkins, Henry, and Mark Deuze. “Convergence Culture.” Convergence 14, no. 1 (2008): 5–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kapell, Matthew, and Andrew B.R. Elliott. Playing with the Past: Digital Games and the Simulation of History. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013.Google Scholar
  21. Landy, Marcia. The Historical Film: History and Memory in the Media. London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001.Google Scholar
  22. Lenoir, Timothy. “All But War Is Simulation: The Military-Entertainment Complex.” Configurations 8, no. 3 (2000): 289–335.  https://doi.org/10.1353/con.2000.0022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lindsay, Caroline. “First World War: Share Your Family’s Stories.” The Courier, February 17, 2014. http://www.thecourier.co.uk/news/history-2.1462/first-world-war-share-your-family-s-stories-1.227114.
  24. “Loos: The Fallen Fourth.” greatwardundee.itch.io. Accessed February 8, 2018. https://greatwardundee.itch.io/loos-the-fallen-fourth.
  25. Mäyrä, Frans. An Introduction to Game Studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008.Google Scholar
  26. McDonald, Emma. “The Global Games Market 2017.” Newzoo. Accessed December 15, 2017. https://newzoo.com/insights/articles/the-global-games-market-will-reach-108-9-billion-in-2017-with-mobile-taking-42/.
  27. McFarland, Elaine, Catriona M.M. MacDonald, and E.W. McFarl. Scotland and the Great War. East Lothian, Scotland: Tuckwell Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  28. McGonigal, Jane. Reality Is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World. New York: Penguin Press, 2011.Google Scholar
  29. McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013.Google Scholar
  30. Moore, M.R. “Adaptation and New Media.” Adaptation 3, no. 2 (2010): 179–192.  https://doi.org/10.1093/adaptation/apq010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mott, Tony. 1001: Video Games You Must Play Before You Die. New York, NY: Universe Publishing, 2013.Google Scholar
  32. Nelson, Randy. “Joystiq Interview: Six Days in Fallujah.” Engadget, April 13, 2009. https://www.engadget.com/2009/04/13/joystiq-interview-six-days-in-fallujah/.
  33. Pitts, Russ. “Don’t Be a Hero – The Full Story Behind Spec Ops: The Line.” Polygon, August 27, 2012. http://www.polygon.com/2012/11/14/3590430/dont-be-a-hero-the-full-story-behind-spec-ops-the-line.
  34. Prensky, Marc. “Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Part 1.” On the Horizon 9, no. 5 (2001): 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. “Resources.” greatwardundee.com. Accessed February 8, 2018. https://www.greatwardundee.com/resources.
  36. Robinson, Nick. “Videogames, Persuasion and the War on Terror: Escaping or Embedding the Military–Entertainment Complex?” Political Studies 60, no. 3 (2012): 504–522.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.2011.00923.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. “Roll of Honour.” greatwardundee.com. Accessed February 8, 2018. https://www.greatwardundee.com/roll-of-honour.
  38. Royle, Trevor. The Flowers of the Forest: Scotland and the First World War. Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2011.Google Scholar
  39. “Six Lives of WW1.” greatwardundee.com. Accessed February 8, 2018. https://www.greatwardundee.com/#fndtn-sixlives.
  40. Sleight, Christopher. “BBC News – How Dundee Became a World Gaming Hub.” BBC Tayside and Central, December 7, 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/tayside_and_central/8399935.stm.
  41. Snape, Joel. “Never Been So Much Fun: The Making of Cannon Fodder.” Eurogamer, December 4, 2013. http://www.eurogamer.net/articles/2013-12-04-never-been-so-much-fun-the-making-of-cannon-fodder.
  42. Stenros, Jaakko, Markus Montola, and Frans Mäyrä. “Pervasive Games in Ludic Society.” In Proceedings of the 2007 Conference on Future Play, 30–37. ACM, 2007.Google Scholar
  43. Suellentrop, Chris. “War Games.” New York Times Magazine, September 8, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/12/magazine/12military-t.html.
  44. Warner, Philip. The Battle of Loos. Ware, Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions, 1976.Google Scholar
  45. Wauchope, Arthur Grenfell. A History of the Black Watch [Royal Highlanders] in the Great War, 1914–1918. London: Medici Society, 1925.Google Scholar

Ludography

  1. Battlefield Series, Developed by EA DICE. Redwood City, California: EA, 2002.Google Scholar
  2. Battlefield 4, Developed by EA DICE. Redwood City, California: EA, 2013, Xbox 360.Google Scholar
  3. Battlefield 1, Developed by EA DICE. Redwood City, California: EA, 2016, PlayStation 4.Google Scholar
  4. Brothers in Arms: Earned in Blood, Developed by Gearbox Software. Montreuil, Paris: Ubisoft, 2005, Xbox.Google Scholar
  5. Brothers in Arms: Hell’s Highway, Developed by Gearbox Software. Montreuil, Paris: Ubisoft, 2008, Xbox 360.Google Scholar
  6. Brothers in Arms: Road to Hill 30, Developed by Gearbox Software. Montreuil, Paris: Ubisoft, 2005, Xbox.Google Scholar
  7. Call of Duty: Modern Warfare, Developed by Infinity Ward. Santa Monica, California: Activision, 2007, Xbox 360.Google Scholar
  8. Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2, Developed by Infinity Ward. Santa Monica, California: Activision, 2009, Xbox 360.Google Scholar
  9. Call of Duty: Black Ops, Developed by Treyarch. Santa Monica, California: Activision, 2010, Xbox 360.Google Scholar
  10. Call of Duty: Black Ops II, Developed by Treyarch. Santa Monica, California: Activision, 2012, Xbox 360.Google Scholar
  11. Cannon Fodder, Developed by Sensible Software. London: Virgin Interactive Entertainment, 1993, PC.Google Scholar
  12. Killbox, Developed by Biome Collective. Dundee: Biome Collective, 2015, PC.Google Scholar
  13. Medal of Honor, Developed by Danger Close Games. Redwood City, California: EA, 2010, Xbox 360.Google Scholar
  14. Rise of Flight: The First Great Air War, Developed by 777 Studios. 777 Studios, 2009, PC.Google Scholar
  15. September 12th, Developed by Gonzalo Frasca. Newsgaming.org, 2003, PC.
  16. Spec Ops: The Line, Developed by Yager Development. Novato, California: 2K Games, 2012, Xbox 360.Google Scholar
  17. This War of Mine, Developed by 11-Bit Studios. Planegg, Germany: Deep Silver, 2014, PC.Google Scholar
  18. Unmanned, Developed by Molleindustria. Molleindustria, 2012, PC.Google Scholar
  19. Valiant Hearts: The Great War, Developed by Ubisoft Montpellier. Montreuli-sous-Bois: Ubisoft, 2014, PC.Google Scholar
  20. Verdun, Developed by BlackMill Games. BlackMill Games, 2013, PC.Google Scholar
  21. Victoria II, Developed by Paradox Development Studio. Stockholm: Paradox Interactive, 2010, PC.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Abertay UniversityDundeeUK

Personalised recommendations