Friction Stir Welding of Low-Carbon Steel

  • Avinish TiwariEmail author
  • Piyush Singh
  • Pankaj Biswas
  • Sachin D. Kore
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes on Multidisciplinary Industrial Engineering book series (LNMUINEN)


The present study focused on the Friction stir welding (FSW) of 4-mm-thick plate of low-carbon steel at different welding conditions. FSW tool made up of tungsten carbide alloy (WC-10wt.% Co) was used to perform the welds at the rotational speeds of 300 rpm and 600 rpm at a constant welding speed of 132 mm/min. The welding was carried out along the rolling direction in the butt joint configuration. Joint was characterized in respect of microstructure, tensile strength, and microhardness. Transient thermal history was recorded using K-type thermocouples during the welding. Microhardness values were higher in the weld zones than the base material. Peak hardness values were observed in the stir zone, which were decreasing on moving toward the base material. Welded sample failed in the base material and demonstrated comparably higher yield and ultimate tensile strength than the base material. However, the ductility of the weld joints was reduced as compared to the base material. Surface roughness measurement was carried out which confirmed more twear at the tool pin than the tool shoulder. From the results, it is concluded that FSW can produce successful welds in low-carbon steel with higher tensile strength and hardness values than the base material.


Low-carbon steel WC-10 wt.%Co alloy Tensile properties Microhardness Surface roughness 



The authors thankfully acknowledge the funding and support provided by the Naval Research Board (NRB), Government of India. The authors are also grateful to the Management and Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (IITG), Guwahati, India. The authors are also thankful to the Central Instruments Facility of IITG for providing the required research facilities.


  1. 1.
    Chung, Y.D., Fujii, H., Ueji, R., Tsuji, N.: Friction stir welding of high carbon steel with excellent toughness and ductility. Scr. Mater. 63, 223–226 (2010). Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ghosh, M., Hussain, M., Gupta, R.K.: Effect of welding parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded plain carbon steel. ISIJ Int. 52, 477–482 (2012). Scholar
  3. 3.
    Thomas, W.M., Threadgill, P.L., Nicholas, E.D.: Feasibility of friction stir welding steel. Sci. Technol. Weld. Join 4, 365–372 (1999). Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reynolds, A.P., Tang, W., Posada, M., Deloach, J.: Friction stir welding of DH36 steel. Sci. Technol. Weld. Join 8, 455–460 (2003). Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sato, Y.S., Yamanoi, H., Kokawa, H., Furuhara, T.: Microstructural evolution of ultrahigh carbon steel during friction stir welding. Scr. Mater. 57, 557–560 (2007). Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ozekcin, A., Jin, H.W., Koo, J.Y., Bangaru, N.V., Ayer, R., Vaughn, G., et al.: A microstructural study of friction stir welded joints of carbon steels. Int. J. Offshore Polar Eng. 14, 284–288 (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ghosh, M., Kumar, K., Mishra, R.S.: Friction stir lap welded advanced high strength steels: microstructure and mechanical properties. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 528, 8111–8119 (2011). Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fujii, H., Cui, L., Tsuji, N., Maeda, M., Nakata, K., Nogi, K.: Friction stir welding of carbon steels. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 429, 50–57 (2006). Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cui, L., Fujii, H., Tsuji, N., Nakata, K., Nogi, K., Ikeda, R., et al.: Transformation in stir zone of friction stir welded carbon steels with different carbon contents. ISIJ Int. 47, 299–306 (2007). Scholar
  10. 10.
    Toumpis, A., Galloway, A., Cater, S., McPherson, N.: Development of a process envelope for friction stir welding of DH36 steel—a step change. Mater. Des. 62, 64–75 (2014). Scholar
  11. 11.
    Saeid, T., Abdollah-zadeh, A., Assadi, H., Malek, Ghaini F.: Effect of friction stir welding speed on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a duplex stainless steel. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 496, 262–268 (2008). Scholar
  12. 12.
    Husain, M.M., Sarkar, R., Pal, T.K., Prabhu, N., Ghosh, M.: Friction stir welding of steel: heat input, microstructure, and mechanical property co-relation. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 24, 3673–3683 (2015). Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lakshminarayanan, A.K., Balasubramanian, V., Salahuddin, M.: Microstructure, tensile and impact toughness properties of friction stir welded mild steel. J. Iron. Steel Res. Int. 17, 68–74 (2010). Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cui, L., Fujii, H., Tsuji, N., Nogi, K.: Friction stir welding of a high carbon steel. Scr. Mater. 56, 637–640 (2007). Scholar
  15. 15.
    Arora, A., Zhang, Z., De, A., DebRoy, T.: Strains and strain rates during friction stir welding. Scr. Mater. 61, 863–866 (2009). Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avinish Tiwari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Piyush Singh
    • 1
  • Pankaj Biswas
    • 1
  • Sachin D. Kore
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia

Personalised recommendations