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Breast Cancer Staging

  • Neslihan Cabioglu
  • Ekrem Yavuz
  • Adnan Aydiner
Chapter

Abstract

The TNM staging system for breast cancer, as described by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), was introduced to act as a standard tool to assess the prognosis of patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. In 2009, the seventh revised edition of the TNM system was published to reflect the updates in technology and clinical evidence. Rapid advances in both clinical and laboratory sciences along with translational research have raised questions about the feasibility of ongoing TNM staging to determine whether to apply systemic therapy based on anatomic prognosis. In 2017, the 8th revised edition of the TNM system was published. Clinical and pathological stage tables were incorporated in addition to the traditional anatomical prognostic stage tables. The pathological stage table is based on clinical information, biomarker data, and findings from surgery and resected tissue. It is anticipated that updates will be made on a more frequent basis than the 6- to 8-year cycle of TNM revisions, when relevant validated information is available.

Keywords

Staging TNM staging AJCC Prognostic stage Gene expression tests 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neslihan Cabioglu
    • 1
  • Ekrem Yavuz
    • 2
  • Adnan Aydiner
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of General Surgery, Istanbul Medical FacultyIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Pathology, Istanbul Medical FacultyIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Internal Medicine, Medical Oncology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Oncology, Institute of OncologyIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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