Surgical Training and Education

  • Daniel J. Miller
  • Vasilios (Bill) MoutzourosEmail author


Teaching and education have been intimately linked to the practice of medicine since its inception. Teaching allows practicing surgeons a change to solidify and improve their own skills while developing relationships with students and giving back to the profession as a whole. Historically, little attention has been paid to methods of teaching. Recent research has emphasized learning models and new techniques of feedback for improving learner acquisition in surgical practice. These techniques are simple, quick, and easy to incorporate in daily life. Surgical simulation has been proposed as a way to increase trainee experience and competence while minimizing potential harm to patients. Simulation has great potential for improving surgical education in the future, but is not widely available or refined at this time.


Postgraduate Medical Education Teaching Surgical skills Feedback Simulation training 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel J. Miller
    • 1
  • Vasilios (Bill) Moutzouros
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Gillette Children’s Specialty HealthcareSt. PaulUSA
  2. 2.Division of Sports MedicineHenry Ford Health System, Department of Orthopedic SurgeryDetroitUSA

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