Fast Distributed RSA Key Generation for Semi-honest and Malicious Adversaries

  • Tore Kasper Frederiksen
  • Yehuda Lindell
  • Valery Osheter
  • Benny Pinkas
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10992)


We present two new, highly efficient, protocols for securely generating a distributed RSA key pair in the two-party setting. One protocol is semi-honestly secure and the other maliciously secure. Both are constant round and do not rely on any specific number-theoretic assumptions and improve significantly over the state-of-the-art by allowing a slight leakage (which we show to not affect security).

For our maliciously secure protocol our most significant improvement comes from executing most of the protocol in a “strong” semi-honest manner and then doing a single, light, zero-knowledge argument of correct execution. We introduce other significant improvements as well. One such improvement arrives in showing that certain, limited leakage does not compromise security, which allows us to use lightweight subprotocols. Another improvement, which may be of independent interest, comes in our approach for multiplying two large integers using OT, in the malicious setting, without being susceptible to a selective-failure attack.

Finally, we implement our malicious protocol and show that its performance is an order of magnitude better than the best previous protocol, which provided only semi-honest security.

1 Introduction

RSA [RSA78] is the oldest, publicly known, public key encryption scheme. This scheme allows a server to generate a public/private key pair, s.t. any client knowing the public key can use this to encrypt a message, which can only be decrypted using the private key. Thus the server can disclose the public key and keep the private key secret. This allows anyone to encrypt a message, which only the server itself can decrypt. Even though RSA has quite a few years on its back, it is still in wide use today such as in TLS, where it keeps web-browsing safe through HTTPS. Its technical backbone can also be used to realize digital signatures and as such is used in PGP. However, public key cryptography, RSA in particular, is also a primitive in itself, widely used in more complex cryptographic constructions such as distributed signature schemes [Sho00], (homomorphic) threshold cryptosystems [HMRT12] and even general MPC [CDN01]. Unfortunately, these complex applications are not in the client-server setting, but in the setting of several distrusting parties, and thus require the private key to be secretly shared between the parties. This is known as distributed key generation and in order to do this, without a trusted third party, is no easy feat. Even assuming the parties act semi-honestly, and thus follow the prescribed protocol, it is a slow procedure as the fastest known implementation takes 15 min for 2048 bit keys [HMRT12]. For the malicious setting we are unaware of previous implementation. However, in many practical settings such a key sharing only needs to be done once for a static set of parties, where the key pair is then used repeatedly afterwards. Thus, a setup time of 15 min is acceptable, even if it is not desirable. Still, there are concrete settings where this is not acceptable.

Motivation. In the world of MPC there are many cases where a setup time of more than a few seconds is unacceptable. For example consider the case of a static server and a client, with a physical user behind it, wishing to carry out some instant, ad-hoc computation. Or the setting where several users meet and want to carry out an auction of a specific item. In these cases, and any case where a specific set of participating parties will only carry out few computations, it is not acceptable for the users to wait more than 15 min before they start computing. In such cases only a few seconds would be acceptable.

However, if a maliciously secure shared RSA key pairs could be generated in a few seconds, another possible application appears as well: being able to generate public key pairs in an enterprise setting, without the use of a Hardware Security Module (HSM). A HSM is a trusted piece of hardware pervasively used in the enterprise setting to construct and store cryptographic keys, guaranteed to be correct and leakage free. However, these modules are slow and expensive, and in general reflects a single point of failure. For this reason several companies, such as Unbound and Sepior have worked on realizing HSM functionality in a distributed manner, using MPC and secret-sharing. This removes the single point of failure, since computation and storage will be distributed between physically separated machines, running different operating systems and having different system administrators. Thus if one machine gets fully compromised by an adversary, the overall security of the generated keys will not be affected. This has been done successfully for the generation of symmetric keys, which usually does not need a specific mathematical structure. Unfortunately, doing this for RSA keys is not so easy. However, being able to generate a key pair with the private key secretly shared will realize this functionality. But for such a distributed system to be able to work properly in an enterprise setting such generation tasks must be completed in a matter of seconds.

In this paper we take a big step towards being able to generate a shared RSA key between two parties in a matter of seconds, even if one of the parties is acting maliciously and not following the prescribed protocol. Thus opening up for realizing the applications mentioned above.

The Setting. We consider two parties \(P_{1}\) and \(P_{2}\) whose goal is to generate an RSA modulus of a certain length, such that the knowledge of the private key is additively shared among them. Namely, the parties wish to compute the following:  
Common input:

A parameter \(\ell \) describing the desired bits of the primes in an RSA modulus, and a public exponent e.

Common output:

A modulus N of length \(2\ell \) bits.

Private outputs:

\(P_{1}\) learns outputs \(p_{1}, q_{1},d_{1}\), and \(P_{2}\) learns outputs \(p_{2}, q_{2},d_{2}\), for which it holds that

\(\left( p_{1}+p_{2} \right) \) and \(\left( q_{1}+q_{2} \right) \) are prime numbers of length \(\ell \) bits.

\(N= \left( p_{1}+p_{2}\right) \cdot \left( q_{1}+q_{2}\right) \).

\(e\cdot \left( d_{1}+d_{2}\right) = 1 \bmod \phi \left( N\right) \).

(Namely, \(\left( d_{1}+d_{2}\right) \) is the RSA private key for (Ne).)

Furthermore, we want the functionality to work (or abort) even if one of the parties is not following the protocol. That is, in the malicious setting.
Distributed RSA Key Generation. It turns out that all prior work follows a common structure for distributed RSA key generation. Basically, since there is no efficient algorithm for constructing random primes, what is generally done is simply to pick random, odd numbers, and hope they are prime. However, the Prime Number Theorem tells us that this is not very likely. In fact, for numbers of the size needed for RSA, the probability that a random odd number is prime is around one in 350. Thus to generate an RSA key, many random prime candidates must be generated and tested in some way. Pairs of prime candidates must then be multiplied together to construct a modulus candidate. Depending on whether the tests of the prime candidates involve ensuring that a candidate is prime except with negligible probability, or only that it is somewhat likely to be prime, the modulus candidate must also be tested to ensure that it is the product of two primes. We briefly outline this general structure below:  
Candidate Generation:

The parties generate random additive shares of potential prime numbers. This may involve ensuring that a candidate is prime except with negligible probability, insuring that the candidate does not contain small prime factors, or simply that it is just an odd number.

Construct Modulus:

Two candidates are multiplied together to construct a candidate modulus.

Verify Modulus:

This involves ensuring that the public modulus is the product of two primes. However, this is not needed if the prime candidates were guaranteed to be prime (except with negligible probability).

Construct Keys:

Using the additive shares of the prime candidates, along with the modulus, the shared RSA key pair is generated.

With this overall structure in mind we consider the chronology of efficient distributed RSA key generation.

Related Work. Work on efficient distributed RSA key generation was started with the seminal result of Boneh and Franklin [BF01]. A key part of their result is an efficient algorithm for verifying biprimality of a modulus without knowledge of its factors. Unfortunately, their protocol is only secure in the semi-honest setting, against an honest majority. Several followup works handle both the malicious and/or dishonest majority setting [PS98, FMY98, Gil99, ACS02, DM10, HMRT12, Gav12]. First Frankel et al. [FMY98] showed how to achieve malicious security against a dishonest minority. Their protocol proceeds like Boneh and Franklin’s scheme [BF01], but uses different types of secret sharing along with zero-knowledge arguments to construct the modulus and do the biprimality test in a malicious secure manner. Furthermore, for their simulation proof to go through, they also require that all candidate shares are committed to using an equivocable commitment. Poupard and Stern [PS98] strengthened this result to achieve security against a malicious majority (specifically the two-party setting) using 1-out-of-\(\beta \) OT, with some allowed leakage though. Later Gilboa [Gil99] showed how to get semi-honest security in the dishonest majority (specifically two-party) setting. Gilboa’s approach follows along the lines of Boneh and Franklin’s protocol [BF01], by using their approach for biprimality testing, but also introduces three new efficient approaches for computing the modulus from additive shares: one based on homomorphic encryption, one based on oblivious polynomial evaluation and one based on oblivious transfer. Both Algesheimer et al. [ACS02] and Damgård and Mikkelsen [DM10] instead do a full primality test of the prime candidates individually, rather than a biprimality test of the modulus. In particular the protocol of Algesheimer et al. [ACS02] is secure in the semi-honest setting (but can be made malicious secure) against a dishonest minority, and executes a distributed Rabin-Miller primality test using polynomial secret sharing with \(\varTheta (\log ( N))\) round complexity, where N is the public modulus. On the other hand Damgård and Mikkelsen’s protocol [DM10] is maliciously secure against a dishonest minority and also executes a distributed Rabin-Miller test, using a special type of verifiable secret sharing called replicated secret sharing which allows them to achieve constant round complexity. Later Hazay et al. [HMRT12] introduced a practical protocol maliciously secure against a dishonest majority (in the two-party setting), which is leakage-free. More specifically their protocol is based on the homomorphic encryption approach from Gilboa’s work [Gil99], but adds zero-knowledge proofs on top of all the steps to ensure security against malicious parties. However, they conjectured that it would be sufficient to only prove correctness of a constructed modulus. This conjecture was confirmed correct by Gavin [Gav12]. In his work Gavin showed how to build a maliciously secure protocol against a dishonest majority (the two-party setting) by having black-box access to methods for generating a modulus candidate which might be incorrect, but is guaranteed to not leak info on the honest party’s shares. The protocol then verifies the execution for every failed candidate and for the success modulus a variant of the Boneh and Franklin biprimality test [BF01] is carried out in a maliciously secure manner by using homomorphic encryption and zero-knowledge.

Contributions. We present two new protocols for distributed RSA key generation. One for the semi-honest setting and one for the malicious setting. Neither of our protocols rely on any specific number theoretic assumptions, but instead are based on oblivious transfer (OT), which can be realized efficiently using an OT extension protocol [KOS15, OOS17]. The malicious secure protocol also requires access to an IND-CPA encryption scheme, coin-tossing, zero-knowledge and secure two-party computation protocols. In fact, using OT extension significantly reduces the amount of public key operations required by our protocols. This is also true for the maliciously secure protocol as secure two-party computation (and thus zero-knowledge) can be done black-box based on OT.

We show that our maliciously secure protocols is more than an order of magnitude faster than its competitor. We achieve malicious security so cheaply mainly by executing a slightly stronger version of our semi-honest protocol and adding a new, lightweight zero-knowledge argument at the end, to ensure that the parties have behaved honestly. This overall idea has been hypothesized [HMRT12] and affirmed [Gav12]. However, unlike previous approaches in this paradigm [DM10, Gav12] our approach does not require rerunning and verifying the honesty of candidates that are discarded, thus increasing efficiency. We achieve this by introducing a new ideal functionality which gives the adversary slightly more (yet useless) power than normally allowed. This idea may be of independent interest as it is relevant for other schemes where many candidate values are constructed and potentially discarded throughout the protocol. We furthermore show how to eliminate much computation in the malicious setting by allowing a few bits of leakage on the honest party’s prime shares. We carefully argue that this does not help an adversary in a non-negligible manner.

We also introduce a new and efficient approach to avoid selective failure attacks when using Gilboa’s protocol [Gil99] for multiplying two large integers together. We believe this approach may be of independent interest as well.

Finally, we present an implementation of our maliciously secure protocol, showing it to be an order of magnitude faster than the most efficient previous semi-honest protocol [HMRT12]. In particular, a four thread implementation takes on average less than 40 s to generate a maliciously secure 2048 bit key, whereas the protocol of Hazay et al. [HMRT12] on average required 15 min for a semi-honestly secure 2048 bit key.

2 Preliminaries

Our protocols use several standard building blocks, namely oblivious transfer, and for the maliciously secure protocol, coin-tossing, an IND-CPA encryption scheme, a zero-knowledge protocol along with secure two-party computation. We here formalize these building blocks.

Random OT. Our protocol relies heavily on random OT both in the candidate generation and construction of modulus phases. The functionality of random OT is described in Fig. 2.1. Specifically we suffice with a functionality that samples the sender’s messages at random and lets the receiver choose which one of these random messages it wishes to learn. Random OTs of this form can be realized highly efficiently based on an OT extension, which uses a small number of “base” OTs to implement any polynomial number of OTs using symmetric cryptography operations alone. The state-of-the-art 1-out-of-2 OT extension is given by Keller et al. [KOS15] and for 1-out-of-\(\beta \) OT, by Orrù et al. [OOS17]. In some cases we need the sender to be able to specifically choose its messages. However, this is easily achieved by using the random OT-model as a black box and we will sometimes abuse notation and assume that \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {OT}}^{{\ell },{\beta }}\) supports specific messages, by allowing the sender to input the message \((\texttt {transfer}, a_0, \dots , a_{\beta -1})\), and the receiver receiving message \((\texttt {transfer}, a_i)\).

AES. Our maliciously secure scheme also requires usage of AES. However, any symmetric encryption scheme will do as long as it is a block-cipher (with blocks of at least \(\kappa \) bits) and can be assumed to be a pseudo-random permutation (PRP) and used in a mode that is IND-CPA secure. We will denote this scheme by \({\mathsf {AES}}:{\{0,1\}}^\kappa \times {\{0,1\}}^* \rightarrow {\{0,1\}}^*\) and have that \({\mathsf {AES}}^{-1}_K({\mathsf {AES}}_K(M))=M\) when \(K\in {\{0,1\}}^\kappa , M\in {\{0,1\}}^*\).

Coin-tossing. We require a coin-tossing functionality several places in our maliciously secure protocols. Such a functionality samples a uniformly random element from a specific set and hands it to both parties. We formally capture the needed functionality in Fig. 2.2.

Zero-Knowledge Argument-of-Knowledge. As part of the setup phase of our malicious protocol we need both parties to prove knowledge of a specific piece of information. For this purpose we require a zero-knowledge argument-of-knowledge. More formally, let \(L\subset {\{0,1\}}^*\) be a publicly known language in NP and \(M_L\) be a language verification function of this language i.e. for all \(x\in L\) there exist a string w of length polynomial in the size of x s.t. \(M_L(x, w)=\top \) and for all \(x\not \in L, w\in {\{0,1\}}^*\) then \(M_L(x, w)=\bot \). Thus this function outputs \(\top \) if and only if w is a string that verifies that x belongs to the language L. We use this to specify the notion of a zero-knowledge argument-of-knowledge that a publicly known value \(x\in L\). Specifically one party, P the prover, knows a witness w and wish to convince the other party, V the verifier, that \(M_L(x, w)=\top \) without revealing any information on w.

We formalize this in Fig. 2.3 and note that such a functionality can be realized very efficiently using garbled circuits [JKO13] or using the “MPC-in-the-head” approach [GMO16].
Two-party Computation. We use a maliciously secure two-party computation functionality in our protocol. For completeness we here formalize the ideal functionality we need for this in Fig. 2.4. Such a functionality can be implemented efficiently in constant rounds using a garbled circuit protocol [Lin16].

Notation. We let \(\kappa \) be the computational security parameter and s the statistical security parameter. We use \(\ell \) to denote the amount of bits in a prime factor of an RSA modulus. Thus \(\ell \ge \kappa \). We use [a] to denote the list of integers \(1, 2, \dots , a\). We will sometimes abuse notation and implicitly view bit strings as a non-negative integer.

3 Construction

This section details constructions of protocols for two-party RSA key generation. We first describe in Sect. 3.1 the general structure of our protocols. We describe in Sect. 3.2 a protocol for the semi-honest setting which is considerably more efficient than previous protocols for this task. Finally, we describe in Sect. 3.3 our efficient protocol which is secure against a malicious adversary.

3.1 Protocol Structure

Following previous protocols for RSA key generation, as described in Sect. 1, the key generation protocol is composed of the following phases:  
Candidate Generation:

In this step, the two parties choose random shares \(p_1\) and \(p_2\), respectively, with the hope that \(p_1+p_2\) is prime. For our maliciously secure protocol they also commit to their choices. The parties then run a secure protocol, based on 1-out-of-\(\beta \) OT, which rules out the possibility that \(p_1+p_2\) is divisible by any prime number smaller than some pre-agreed threshold \(B_{1}\). We call this the first trial division.

If \(p_1+p_2\) is not divisible by any such prime then it passed on to the next stage, otherwise it is discarded.

Construct Modulus:

Given shares of two candidate primes \(p_1,p_2\) and \(q_1,q_2\), the parties run a secure protocol, based on 1-out-of-2 OT, which computes the candidate modulus \(N=(p_1+p_2)(q_1+q_2)\). The output N is learned by both parties.

Verify Modulus:

This step consists of two phases in our semi-honest protocol and three phases in the malicious protocol. Both protocols proceeds s.t. once N is revealed and in the open, the parties run a second trial division, by locally checking that no primes smaller than a threshold \(B_{2}\) (\(B_{1} < B_{2}\)) are a factor of N. If N is divisible by such a number then N is definitely not a valid RSA modulus and is discarded. For an N not discarded, the parties run a secure biprimality test which verifies that N is the product of two primes. If it is not, it is discarded. For the malicious protocol, a proof of honesty phase is added to ensure that N is constructed in accordance with the commitments from Candidate Generation and that N is indeed a biprime, constructed using the “correct” shares, even if one party has acted maliciously.

Construct Keys:

Up to this point, the parties generated the modulus N. Based on the value \(\varPhi (N) \mod e\) and their prime shares \(p_1, q_1\), respectively \(p_2, q_2\), the parties can locally compute their shares of the secret key \(d_1\), respectively \(d_2\) s.t. \(e\cdot (d_1+d_2)=1 \bmod \phi (N)\).

In principle, the protocol could run without the first and second trial division phases. Namely, the parties could choose their shares, compute N and run the biprimality test to check whether N is the product of two primes. The goal of the trial division tests is to reduce the overall run time of the protocol: Checking whether p is divisible by \(\beta \), filters out \(1/ \beta \) of the candidate prime factors, and reduces, by a factor of \(1-1/\beta \), the number of times that the other phases of the protocol need to run. It is easy to see that trial divisions provide diminishing returns as \(\beta \) increases. The thresholds \(B_{1},B_{2}\) must therefore be set to minimize the overall run time of the protocol.

The phases of the protocol are similar to those in previous work that was described in Sect. 1. Our protocol has two major differences: (1) Almost all cryptographic operations are replaced by the usage of OT extension, which is considerably more efficient than public key operations was has been used previously. (2) Security against malicious adversaries is achieved efficiently, by observing that most of checks that are executed in the protocol can be run while being secure only against semi-honest adversaries, assuming privacy is kept against malicious attacks and as long as the final checks that are applied to the chosen modulus N are secure against malicious adversaries.

3.2 The Semi-honest Construction

The protocol consists of the phases described in Sect. 3.1, and is described in Figs. 3.2 and 3.3. These phases are implemented in the following way:

Candidate Generation: The parties \(P_{1}\) and \(P_{2}\) choose private random strings \(p_1\) and \(p_2\), respectively, of length \(\ell -1\) bits, subject to the constraint that the two least significant bits of \(p_{1}\) are 11, and the two least significant bits of \(p_{2}\) are 0 (this ensures that the sum of the two shares is equal to 3 modulo 4).

The parties now check, for each prime number \(3\le \beta \le B_{1}\), that \(\left( p_{1} + p_{2}\right) \ne 0 \bmod \beta \). In other words, if we use the notation \(a_{1} = p_{1}\bmod \beta \) and \(a_{2} = -p_{2}\bmod \beta \), then the parties need to run a secure protocol verifying that \(a_{1} \ne a_{2}\).

Previous approaches for doing this involved using a modified BGW protocol [BF01], Diffie-Hellman based public key operations (which have to be implemented over relatively long moduli, rather than in elliptic-curve based groups) [HMRT12], and using a 1-out-of-\(\beta \) OT [PS98]. We take our point of departure in the latter approach, but improve the efficiency by having a lower level of abstraction and using an efficient random OT extension. We describe our approach by procedure \(\textsf {Div-OT}\) in Fig. 3.1.

The parties run this test for each prime \(3\le \beta \le B_{1}\) in increasing order (where \(B_{1}\) is the pre-agreed threshold). Note that the probability that the shares are filtered by the test is \(1 / \beta \) and therefore the test provides diminishing returns as \(\beta \) increases. The threshold \(B_{1}\) is chosen to optimize the overall performance of the entire protocol.

Construct Modulus: Once two numbers pass the previous test, the parties have shares of two candidate primes \(p_1,p_2\) and \(q_1,q_2\). They then run a secure protocol which computes the candidate modulus
$$ N=\left( p_1+p_2\right) \left( q_1+q_2\right) = p_{1}q_{1} + p_{2}q_{2} + p_{1}q_{2} + p_{2}q_{1}. $$
The multiplication \(p_{1}q_{1}\) (resp. \(p_{2}q_{2}\)) is computed by \(P_{1}\) (resp. \(P_{2}\)) by itself. The other two multiplications are computed by running a protocol by Gilboa [Gil99], which reduces the multiplication of \(\ell -1\) bit long numbers to \(\ell -1\) invocations of 1-out-of-2 OTs, implemented using an efficient OT extension. The protocol works as follows: Assume that the sender’s input is a and that the receiver’s input is b, and that they must compute shares of \(a\cdot b\). Let the binary representation of b be \(b=b_{\ell -1},\ldots ,b_{2},b_{1}\). For each bit the two parties run a 1-out-of-2 OT protocol where the sender’s inputs are \((r_{i}, (r_{i}+a)\; \mathrm {mod} \; 2^{2\ell })\), and the receiver’s input is \(b_{i}\), where \(r_i\) is a random \(2^{2\ell }\) bit integer. Denote the receiver’s output as \(c_{i} = r_{i}+a\cdot b_{i} \mod 2^{2\ell }\). It is easy to verify that
$$ a\cdot b=\left( \textstyle {\sum _{i\in [\ell -1]}} 2^{i-1}\cdot c_{i}\right) + \left( \textstyle {\sum _{i\in [\ell -1]}}-2^{i-1}\cdot r_{i}\right) . $$
These will therefore be the two outputs of the multiplication protocol. We implement this protocol based on random OT.
After constructing the modulus, the parties verify that the public exponent e will work with this specific modulus. I.e. that \(\text {gcd}(\phi (N), e)=1\). Namely, that \(\text {gcd}(N-p-q+1,e)=1\). This is done in the same manner as Boneh and Franklin [BF01], where \(P_1\) computes \(w_1=N+1-p_1-q_1 \mod e\) and \(P_2\) computes \(w_2=p_2+q_2 \mod e\). The parties exchange the values \(w_1\) and \(w_2\) and then verify that \(w_1\ne w_2\). If instead \(w_1=w_2\) it means that e is a factor of \(\phi (N)\) and the parties discard the candidate shares.

Verify Modulus: As previously mentioned, for our semi-honest protocol the verification of the modulus consists of two phases in a pipelined manner; first a trial division phase and then a full biprimality test. Basically, the full biprimality test is significantly slower than the trial division phase, thus, the trial division phase weeds out unsuitable candidates much cheaper than the biprimality test. Thus, overall we expect to execute the biprimality test much fewer times when doing trial division first.

The trial division phase itself is very simple: since both parties know the candidate modulus N, one party simply try to divide it by all primes numbers in the range \(B_{1} < \beta \le B_{2}\). If successful, then N is discarded.

If N passes the trial division, we must still verify that it is in fact a biprime, except with negligible probability. To do this we use a slightly modified version of the biprimality suggested by Boneh and Franklin [BF01], which relies on number-theoretic properties of \(N=pq\) where \(p=3\bmod 4\) and \(q=3\bmod 4\). (Note that in the prime-candidate generation, p and q were guaranteed to have this property.) The test is described in Fig. 3.4. By slightly modified, we mean that step 2), which ensures that \(\mathrm {gcd}(N, p+q-1)=1\), is computed without the need of doing operations in the group \({\mathbb {Z}}_N[x]/(x^2+1))^*/{\mathbb {Z}}_N^*\).

Construct Keys: This phase is a simplified version of what is done by Boneh and Franklin [BF01]. Using the values \(w_1\) and \(w_2\) defined in construct modulus the parties compute \(w=w_1-w_2 \mod e\) and then \(b=w^{-1}\mod e\). \(P_1\) defines its share of the private key as \(d_1=\lfloor \frac{-b\cdot (N+1-p_1-q_1)+1}{e}\rfloor \). \(P_2\) defines its share of the private key as \(d_2=1+\lfloor \frac{-b\cdot (-p_2-q_2)}{e}\rfloor \) or \(d_2=\lfloor \frac{-b\cdot (-p_2-q_2)}{e}\rfloor \) or depending on whether \(e|p_2+q_2\) or not.

We formally describe the full semi-honest protocol in Figs.  3.2 and 3.3.

Ideal functionality. The exact ideal functionality, \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {RSA-semi}}\), our semi-honest protocol realizes is expressed in Fig. 3.5. The functionality closely reflects the specific construction of the modulus and the shares of the private key of our protocol. In particular, we notice that both primes of the public modulus are congruent to 3 modulo 4, which is needed for the Boneh and Franklin biprimality test to work. Based on these shared primes, the shares of the private keys are generated and handed to the parties. This part of the functionality closely follows the previous literature [BF01, Gil99, ACS02, DM10, Gav12]. First notice using primes congruent to 3 modulo 4 does not decrease security. This follows since all primes suitable for RSA are odd this means that only about half of potential primes are not used. Thus the amount of possible moduli are reduced by around 75%. However, this is similar to all previous approaches. Furthermore, this does not give an adversary any noticeable advantage in finding primes used in key generation.

Next notice that the value \(\phi (N)\mod e\) is leaked. This leakage comes implicitly from how the shares \(d_1\) and \(d_2\) are constructed (although it is made explicit in the ideal functionality). We note that since we use the method of Boneh and Franklin [BF01] for this computation, this leakage is also present in their work and any other protocol that uses this approach to generate the shared keys. Specifically this means that at most \(\log (e)\) bits of information on the honest party’s secret shares are leaked. Thus when e is small, this does not pose any issue. However, using the common value of \(e=2^{16}+1\) this could pose a problem. We show how to avoid leaking \(\phi (N)\mod e\) in our maliciously secure protocol.

Using this functionality we get the following theorem:

Theorem 3.6

The protocol \(\varPi _{\textsf {RSA-semi}}\) in Figs. 3.2 and 3.3 securely realizes the ideal functionality \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {RSA-semi}}\) in Fig. 3.5 against a static and semi-honest adversary in the \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {OT}}^{{\cdot },{\cdot }}\)-hybrid model.

We will not prove this theorem directly. The reason being that the following section will make it apparent that all steps of the semi-honest protocol is also part of the malicious protocol. Now remember that a simulator for a semi-honest protocol receives the output of the corrupt party. In our protocol this will in particular mean the prime shares. Thus our semi-honest simulator will proceed like the malicious one for the same steps, using the corrupt party’s prime shares.

3.3 Malicious Construction

The malicious protocol follows the semi-honest one with the following exceptions:
  • The underlying OT functionality must be maliciously secure.

  • An extractable commitment to each party’s choice of shares is added to the construct candidate phase. This is needed since the simulator must be able to extract the malicious party’s choice of shares in order to construct messages indistinguishable from the honest party, consistent with any cheating strategy of the malicious party.

  • A new and expanded version of the Gilboa protocol is used to compute a candidate modulus. This is done since a malicious \(P_2\) (the party acting as the sender in the OTs) might launch a selective failure attack (details below).

  • We use OT to implement an equality check of \(w_1=N+1-p_1-q_1\mod e\) and \(w_2=p_2+q_2 \mod e\) to ensure that \(\text {gcd}(\phi (N), e)=1\) without leaking \(w_1\) and \(w_2\), and thus avoid leaking \(\phi (N)\mod e\) which is leaked in the semi-honest protocol.

  • A proof of honesty step is added to the verify modulus phase, which is used to have the parties prove to one another that they have executed the protocol correctly.

  • The private key shares are randomized and computed using a secure protocol.

For OT we simply assume access to any ideal functionalities as described in Sect. 2. Regarding the AES-based commitments, the expanded Gilboa protocol and the proof of honesty, we give further details below.

AES-based commitments. We implement these “commitments” as follows: Before Candidate Generation, in a phase we will call Setup each party “commits” to a random AES key K by sending \(c={\mathsf {AES}}_{{\mathsf {AES}}_r(K)}(0)\) for a random r (chosen by coin-tossing). This unusual “double encryption” ensure that c is not only hiding K, through the encryption, but also binding to K. The key K is then used to implement a committing functionality. This is done by using K as the key in an AES encryption, where the value we want to commit to is the message encrypted. However, for our proof to go through we require this “commitment” to be extractable. Fortunately this is easily achievable if the simulator knows K and to ensure this we do a zero-knowledge argument of knowledge of K s.t. \(c={\mathsf {AES}}_{{\mathsf {AES}}_r(K)}(0)\). By executing this zero-knowledge argument the simulator can clearly extract K (assuming the zero-knowledge argument is an ideal functionality).

Expanded Gilboa Protocol. The usage of OT in the malicious setting is infamous for selective failure vulnerabilities [KS06, MF06] and our setting is no different. Specifically, what a malicious \(P_2\) can do is to guess that \(P_1\)’s choice bit is 0 (or 1) in a given step of the Gilboa protocol. In this case, \(P_2\) inputs the correct message for choice 0, i.e. the random string r. But for the message for a choice of 1 it inputs the 0-string. If \(P_2\)’s guess was correct, then the protocol executes correctly. However, if its guess was wrong, then the result of the Gilboa protocol, i.e. the modulus, will be incorrect. If this happens then the protocol will abort during the proof of honesty. Thus, two distinct and observable things happen dependent on whether \(P_2\)’s guess was correct or not and so \(P_2\) learns the choice bit of \(P_1\) by observing what happens. In fact, \(P_2\) can repeat this as many times as it wants, each time succeeding with probability 1/2 (when \(P_1\)’s input is randomly sampled). This means that with probability \(2^{-x}\) it can learn x of \(P_1\)’s secret input bits.

To prevent this attack we use the notion of noisy encodings. A noisy encoding is basically a linear encoding with some noise added s.t. decoding is only possible when using some auxiliary information related to the noise. We have party \(P_1\) noisily encode its true input to the Gilboa protocol. Because of the linearity it is possible to retrieve the true output in the last step of the Gilboa protocol (where the parties send their shares to each other in order to learn the result N) without leaking anything on the secret shares of \(P_1\), even in the presence of a selective failure attack.

In a bit more detail, we define a \(2^{-s}\)-statistically hiding noisy encoding of a value \(a\in {\mathbb {Z}}_{2^{\ell -1}}\) as follows:
  • Let \({\mathcal {P}}\) be the smallest prime larger than \(2^{2\ell }\).

  • Pick random values \(h_1, \dots , h_{2\ell +3s}, g \in {\mathbb {F}}_{{\mathcal {P}}}\) and random bits \(d_1, \dots , d_{2\ell +3s}\) under the constraint that \(g+\sum _{i\in [2\ell +3s]} h_i\cdot d_i \mod {\mathcal {P}}=a\).

  • The noisy encoding is then \((h_1, \dots , h_{2\ell +3s}, g)\) and the decoding info is \((d_1, \dots ,d_{2\ell +3s})\).

Now for each of its shares, \(p_1\) and \(q_1\), \(P_1\) noisily encodes as described and sends the noisy encodings \((h_{p,1}, \dots , h_{p,2\ell +3s}, g_p)\) and \((h_{q,1}, \dots , h_{q,2\ell +3s}, g_q)\) to \(P_2\). Next, when they execute the OT steps, \(P_1\) uses the decoding info \((d_{p,1}, \dots ,d_{p,2\ell +3s})\) and \((d_{q,1}, \dots , d_{q,2\ell +3s})\) of \(p_1\) and \(q_1\) respectively and uses this as input the OTs instead of the bits of \(p_1\) and \(q_1\). For each such bit of \(p_{1}\), \(P_{2}\) inputs to the OT a random value \(c_{0,p,i} = r_{i}\) and the value \(c_{1,p,i} = r_{i}+q_{2}\) (and also operates in a similar way for q). \(P_1\) then receives the values \(c_{d_{p,i}, p,i}, c_{d_{q,i}, q,i}\in {\mathbb {Z}}_{\mathcal {P}}\) and \(P_2\) holds the values \(c_{0,p,i}, c_{1,p,i},c_{0,q,i},c_{1,q,i} \in {\mathbb {Z}}_{\mathcal {P}}\). It turns out that leaking at most s bits of \((d_{p,1}, \dots , d_{p,2\ell +3s})\) and \((d_{q,1}, \dots , d_{q,2\ell +3s})\) to \(P_2\) does not give more than a \(2^{-s}\) advantage in finding the value encoded. Thus, even if \(P_2\) launches s selective failure attacks it gains no significant knowledge on \(P_1\)’s shares.

After having completed the OTs, the parties compute their shares of the modulus N by using the linearity of the encodings. We believe that this approach to thwart selective failure attacks, when multiplying large integers, could be used other settings as well. In particular, we believe that for certain choices of parameters our approach could make a protocol like MASCOT [KOS16] more efficient since it would be possible to eliminate (in their terminology) the combining step.

Proof of Honesty. The proof of honesty has three responsibilities: first, it is a maliciously secure execution of the full biprimality test of Boneh and Franklin [BF01]; second, it verifies that the modulus is constructed from the values committed to in candidate generation. Finally it generates a random sharing of the private key. The proof of honesty is carried out twice. Once where party \(P_1\) acts as the prover and \(P_2\) the verifier, and once where \(P_2\) acts the prover and \(P_1\) the verifier. Thus each party gets convinced of the honesty of the other party and learns their respective shares of the private key.

To ensure a correctly executed biprimality test, a typical zero-knowledge technique is used, where coin-tossing is used to sample public randomness and the prover randomizes its witness along with the statement to prove. The verifier then gets the option to decide whether he wants to learn the value used for randomizing or the randomized witness. This ensures that the prover can only succeed with probability 1/2 in convincing the verifier if it does not know a witness.

To ensure that the modulus was constructed from the values committed to, a small secure two-party computation is executed which basically verifies that this is the case. Since the commitments are AES-based, this can be carried out in a very lightweight manner. Furthermore, to ensure that the values used in the maliciously secure biprimality test are also consistent with the shares committed to, we have the prover commit to the randomization values as well and verify these, along with their relation to the shares. Finally, we let the proving party input some randomness which is used to randomize the verifying party’s share of the private key. We formally describe the full protocol in Figs. 3.7, 3.8, 3.9 and 3.10.

Ideal Functionality. We express the ideal functionality that our protocol realizes in Fig. 3.12 When there is no corruption the functionality simply proceeds almost as the semi-honest functionality in Fig. 3.5. That is, making a shared key based on random primes congruent to 3 modulo 4, but where the shares of the secret key are sampled at random in the range between \(-2^{2\ell +s}\) and \(2^{2\ell +s}\). This means that the value \(\phi (N)\mod e\) is not leaked. When a party is corrupted the adversary is allowed certain freedoms in its interaction with the ideal functionality. Specifically the adversary is given access to several commands, allowing it and the functionality to generate a shared RSA key through an interactive game.

The functionality closely reflects what the adversary can do in our protocol. Specifically we allow a malicious party to repeatedly query the functionality to learn a random modulus, based on its choice of prime shares. This is reflected by commands sample and construct. Sample lets the adversary input its desired share of a prime and the functionality then samples a random share for the honest party s.t. the sum is prime. This command also ensures that the primes work with the choice of public exponent e. I.e., that \(\text {gcd}(e,(p-1)(q-1))=1\). Specifically it verifies that the gcd of e and the prime candidate minus one is equal to one. This implies that no matter which two primes get paired to construct a modulus, it will always hold that \(\text {gcd}(e, \phi (N))=1\). Construct lets the adversary decide on two primes (of which it only knows its own shares) that should be used to construct a modulus and generate shares of the secret key in the same manner as done by Boneh and Franklin [BF01]. Finally, the adversary can then decide which modulus it wishes to use, which is reflected in the command select.

However, the functionality does allow the adversary to learn a few bits of information of the honest party’s prime shares. In particular, the trial division part of our candidate generation phase, allows the adversary to gain some knowledge on the honest party’s shares, as reflected in command leak. Specifically the adversary gets to guess the remainder of the honest party’s shares modulo \(\beta \), for each \(\beta \in \mathcal {B}\) and is informed whether its guess was correct or not. In case the malicious party is \(P_2\) then if any of its guesses for a particular prime is wrong, the adversary loses the option of selecting the modulus based on this prime.

The functionality keeps track of the adversary’s queries and what was leaked to it, through the set J and dictionary C. Basically the set J stores the unique ids of primes the simulator has generated and which the adversary can use to construct an RSA modulus. Thus the ids of primes already used to construct a modulus are removed from this set. The same goes for primes a malicious \(P_2\) have tried to learn extra bits about, but failed (as reflected in leak). The dictionary C on the other hand, maps prime ids already used to construct an RSA modulus, into this modulus. This means that once two primes have been used, using construct, to construct a modulus, their ids are removed from J and instead inserted into C. After the construction we furthermore allow the adversary \(P_\mathcal {I}\) to pick a value \(w_\mathcal {I}' \in [0, e[\) and learn if \(w_\mathcal {I}'=w_{3-\mathcal {I}}\) when \(w_{3-\mathcal {I}}\) is constructed according to the protocol using the honest party’s shares. However, if the corrupt party is \(P_2\) and it guesses correctly then it won’t be allowed to use the candidate.

Finally we have the command abort which allows an adversary to abort the functionality at any point it wishes, as is the norm in maliciously secure dishonest majority protocols.

Security. If there is no corruption we have the same security as described for the semi-honest protocol in Sect. 3.2, except that \(\phi (N)\mod e\) is not implicitly leaked by party’s secret key share. Next we see that allowing the adversary to query the functionality for moduli before making up its mind does not influence security. Since the adversary is polytime bounded, it can only query for polynomially many moduli. Furthermore, as the honest party’s shares are randomly sampled by the functionality, and since they are longer than the security parameter (e.g. 1021 vs. 128) the adversary will intuitively not gain anything from having this ability. Arguments for why this is the case have been detailed by Gavin [Gav12].

Regarding the allowed leakage we show in the full version that (for standard parameters) at most \(\log _2(e/(e-1))+2\log _2(B_1/2)\) bits are leaked to a malicious party without the protocol aborting, no matter if \(P_1\) or \(P_2\) is malicious. If \(P_2\) is malicious it may choose to try to learn \((1+\epsilon )x\) bits of the honest party’s prime shares for a small \(\epsilon \le 1\) with probability at most \(2^{-x}\). However, if it is unlucky and does not learn the extra bits then it will not be allowed to use a modulus based on the prime it tried to get some leakage on.

We now argue that this leakage is not an issue, neither in theory nor in practice. For the theoretical part, assume learning some extra bits on the honest party’s prime shares would give the adversary a non-negligible advantage in finding the primes of the modulus. This would then mean that there exists a polytime algorithm breaking the security of RSA with non-negligible probability by simply exhaustively guessing what the leaked bits are and then running the adversary algorithm on each of the guesses. Thus if the amount of leaked bits is \(O(\text {polylog}(\kappa ))\), for the computational security parameter \(\kappa \), then such an algorithm would also be polytime, and cannot exist under the assumption that RSA is secure. So from a theoretical point of view, we only need to argue that the leakage is \(O(\text {polylog}(\kappa ))\). To do so first notice that \(B_1\) is a constant tweaked for efficiency. But for concreteness assume it to be somewhere between two constants, e.g., 31 and 3181.1 Since \(B_1\) is a constant it also means that the leakage is constant and thus \(O(1)\in O(\text {polylog}(\kappa ))\).

However, if the concrete constant is greater than \(\kappa \) this is not actually saying much, since we then allow a specific value greater than \(2^\kappa \) time to be polynomial in \(\kappa \). However, it turns out that for \(B_1=31\) the exact leakage is only 3.4 bits and for \(B_1=3181\) it is 5.7 bits.

Formally we prove the following theorem in the full version.

Theorem 3.11

The protocol \(\varPi _{\textsf {RSA}}\) in Figs. 3.7, 3.8, 3.9 and 3.10 securely realizes the ideal functionality \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {RSA}}\) in Fig. 3.12 against a static and malicious adversary in the \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {OT}}^{{\cdot },{\cdot }}\)-, \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {CT}}\)-, \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {ZK}}\)-, \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {2PC}}\)-hybrid model assuming \({\mathsf {AES}}\) is IND-CPA and a PRP on the first block per encryption.

3.4 Outline of Proof

Efficient Malicious Security. One of the reasons we are able to achieve malicious security in such an efficient manner is because of our unorthodox ideal functionality. In particular, by giving the adversary the power to discard some valid moduli, we can prove our protocol secure using a simulation argument without having to simulate the honest party’s shares of potentially valid moduli discarded throughout the protocol. This means, that we only need to simulate for the candidate N and its shares \(p_1,q_1, p_2, q_2\) that actually get accepted as an output of the protocol.

Another key reason for our efficiency improvements is the fact that almost all of the protocol is executed in a “strong” semi-honest manner. By this we mean that only privacy is guaranteed when a party is acting maliciously, but correctness is not. This makes checking a candidate modulus N much more efficient than if full malicious security was required. At the end of the protocol, full malicious security is ensured for a candidate N by the parties proving that they have executed the protocol correctly.

The Simulator. With these observations about the efficiency of the protocol in mind, we see that the overall strategy for our simulator is as follows, assuming w.l.o.g. that \(P_\mathcal {I}\) is the honest party and \(P_{3-\mathcal {I}}\) is corrupted.

For the Setup phase the simulator simply emulates the honest party’s choice of key \(K_\mathcal {I}\) by sampling it at random. The reason this is sufficient is that because \({\mathsf {AES}}\) is a permutation and \(K_\mathcal {I}\) is random, thus \({\mathsf {AES}}_{r_\mathcal {I}}(K_\mathcal {I})\) is random in the view of the adversary. The crucial thing to notice is that nothing is leaked about this when using it as key in the second encryption under the PRP property. We do strictly need the second encryption since the encryption key \(r_\mathcal {I}\) is public, thus if we didn’t have the second encryption an adversary could decrypt and learn \(K_\mathcal {I}\)! Regarding the zero-knowledge proof we notice that the simulator can extract the adversary’s input \(K_{3-\mathcal {I}}'\). We notice that the simulator can emulate \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {ZK}}^{M_L}\) by verifying \(K_{3-\mathcal {I}}'\) in the computation of \(c_{3-\mathcal {I}}\). Again we rely on AES being a PRP to ensure that if \(K_{3-\mathcal {I}}'\) is not the value used in computing \(c_{3-\mathcal {I}}\) then the check will always fail because it would require the adversary to find \(K_{3-\mathcal {I}}'\ne K_{3-\mathcal {I}}\) s.t. \({\mathsf {AES}}_{r_{3-\mathcal {I}}}(K_{3-\mathcal {I}}')={\mathsf {AES}}_{r_{3-\mathcal {I}}}(K_{3-\mathcal {I}})\). Thus the adversary is committed to some specific key \(K_{3-\mathcal {I}}\) extracted by the simulator.

For Candidate Generation the simulator starts by sampling a random value \(\tilde{p}_\mathcal {I}\) and extracts the malicious party’s share \(\tilde{p}_{3-\mathcal {I}}\) from its “commitment” \(H_{\tilde{p}_{3-\mathcal {I}}}\), since the simulator knows the key \(K_{3-\mathcal {I}}\). Furthermore, since we use AES in a mode s.t. it is IND-CPA secure the adversary cannot distinguish between the values \(H_{\tilde{p}_\mathcal {I}}\) simulated or the values sent in the real protocol.

Next see that if \(4(\tilde{p}_1+\tilde{p}_2)+3\) is not a prime, then the simulator will emulate the rest of the protocol using the random value it sampled. This simulation will be statistically indistinguishable from the real world since the simulator and the honest party both sample at random and follow the protocol. Furthermore, since the shares don’t add up to a prime, any modulus based on this will never be output in the real protocol since the proof of honesty will discover if N is not a biprime.

On the other hand, if the shares do sum to a prime then the simulator uses sample on the ideal functionality \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {RSA}}\) to construct a prime based on the malicious party’s share \(\tilde{p}_{3-\mathcal {I}}\). It then simulates based on the value extracted from the malicious party. Specifically for the OT-based trial division, the simulator extracts the messages of the malicious party and uses these as input to leak on the ideal functionality. This allows the simulator to learn whether the adversary’s input to the trial division plus the true and internal random value held by the ideal functionality is divisible by \(\beta \).

To simulate construction of a modulus, we first consider a hybrid functionality, which is the same as \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {RSA}}\), except that a command full-leak is added. This command allows the simulator to learn the honest party’s shares of a prime candidate, under the constraint that it is not used in the RSA that key the functionality outputs. It is easy to see that adding this method to the functionality does not give the adversary more power, since it can only learn the honest party’s shares of primes which are independent of the output.

With this expanded, hybrid version of \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {RSA}}\) in place, the simulator emulates the construction of a modulus by first checking if one of the candidate values were prime and the other was not. In this case it uses full-leak to learn the value that is prime and then simulates the rest of the protocol like an honest party. This will be statistically indistinguishable from the real execution since the modulus will never be used as output since it is not a biprime and so will be discarded, at the latest, in the proof of honesty phase.

However, if both candidate values are marked as prime the simulator simulates the extended Gilboa protocol for construction of the modulus. It does so by extracting the malicious party’s input to the calls to \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {OT}}^{{\kappa },{\beta }}\). Based on this it can simulate the values of the honest party. This is pretty straightforward, but what is key is that no info on the honest party’s prime shares is leaked to the adversary in case of a selective failure attack (when the adversary is the sender in \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {OT}}^{{\kappa },{\beta }}\)). To see this, first notice that selecting \(h_1, \dots , h_{2\ell +2s}, g\) at random and computing \(g+\sum _{i\in [2\ell +2s]}h_i\cdot d_i \mod {\mathcal {P}}\) is in fact a 2-universal hash function. This implies, using some observations by Ishai et al. [IPS09], that whether these values are picked at random s.t. they hash to the true input or are just random, is \(2^{-s}\) indistinguishable. Thus extending the function with \(h_{2\ell +2s+1}, \dots g_{2\ell +3s}\), allows the adversary to learn s of the bits \(d_i\) without affecting the indistinguishable result. Since s is the statistical security parameter and each \(d_i\) is picked at random, this implies that the adversary cannot learn anything non-negligible.

The proof of security of the remaining steps is quite straightforward. For trial division the simulator basically acts as an honest party since all operations are local. For the biprimality test the simulation is also easy. For step 1, it is simply following the proof by Boneh and Franklin [BF01], for step 2, simulation can be done using the same approach as for the Gilboa protocol. Regarding proof of honesty the simulation follows the steps for the simulation of the biprimality test and uses the emulation of the coin-tossing functionality to learn what challenge it needs to answer and can thus adjust the value sent to the verifier that will make the proof accept. Finally the key generation is also unsurprising as all the computations are local.

4 Instantiation

Optimizations. Fail-fast. It is possible to limit the amount of tests carried out on composite candidates, in all of the OT-based trial division, the second trial division and the biprimality test, by simply employing a fail-fast approach. That is, to simply break the loop of any of these tests, as soon as a candidate fails. This leads to significantly fewer tests, as in all three tests a false positive is more likely to be discovered in the beginning of the test. (For example, a third of the candidates are likely to fail in the first trial division test, which checks for divisibility by 3.)

Maximum runtime. In the malicious protocol an adversary can cheat in such a way that a legitimate candidate (either prime or modulus) gets rejected. In particular this means that the adversary could make the protocol run forever. For example, if he tries to learn 1024 bits of the honest party’s shares by cheating then we expect to discard \(2^{1023}\) good candidate moduli! Thus, tail-bounds for the choice of parameters should be computed s.t. the protocol will abort once it has considered more candidate values than would be needed to find a valid modulus e.w.p. \(2^{-s}\). In fact, it is strictly needed in order to limit the maximum possible leakage from selective failure attacks.

Synchronous execution. To ensure that neither party \(P_1\) nor party \(P_2\) sits idle at any point in time of the execution of the protocol, we can have them exchange roles for every other candidate. Thus, every party performs both roles, but on two different candidates at the same time, throughout the execution of the protocol. For example, while Alice executes as \(P_1\) in the candidate generation on one candidate, she simultaneously executes the candidate generation as \(P_2\) for another candidate. Similarly for Bob. The result of this is that no party will have to wait for the other party to complete a step as they will both do the same amount of computation in each step.

Leaky two-party computation. We already discussed in Sect. 3.3 how leaking a few bits of information on the honest party’s prime shares does not compromise the security of the protocol. Along the same line, we can make the observation that learning a predicate on the honest party’s share will in expectation not give more than a single bit of information to the adversary. In particular it can learn at most x bits of information with probability at most \(2^{-x}\). This is the same leakage that is already allowed to \(P_2\), and thus allowing this would not yield any significant change to the leakage of our protocol. This means that it can suffice to construct only two garbled circuits to implement \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {2PC}}\) by using the dual-execution approach [MF06]. This is compared to the s garbled circuits needed in the general case where no leakage is allowed [Lin16].

Constant rounds. We note that the way our protocols \(\varPi _{\textsf {RSA-semi}}\) and \(\varPi _{\textsf {RSA}}\) are presented in Figs. 3.2 and 3.3, respectively Figs. 3.7, 3.8, 3.9 and 3.10 does not give constant time. This is because they are expressed iteratively s.t. candidate primes are sampled until a pair passing all the tests is found. However it is possible to simply execute each step of the protocols once for many candidates in parallel. This is because, based on the Prime Number Theorem, we can find the probability of a pair of candidates being good. This allows us to compute the amount of candidate values needed to ensure that a good modulus is found, except with negligible probability. Unfortunately this will in most situations lead to many candidate values being constructed unnecessarily. For this reason it is in practice more desirable to construct batches of candidates in parallel instead to avoid doing a lot of unnecessary work, yet still limit the amount of round of communication.

Efficiency Comparison. We here try to compare the efficiency of our protocol with previous work. This is done in Table 1.
Table 1.

Comparison of the different protocols for distributed RSA key generation. The best possible values are highlighted in bold. All values assume a constant, and minimal, amount of participating parties; i.e. 2 or 3. The column Amount of candidates expresses the expected amount of random candidates that must be generated before finding a suitable modulus. The column Candidate generation expresses the computational bit complexity required to construct a single candidate prime. The column Construct modulus expresses the computational bit complexity required to construct a single potential modulus, based on two prime candidates. The column (Bi)primality test expresses the computational bit complexity required to verify that a single prime candidate is prime except with negligible probability or (depending on the protocol) to verify that a single modulus is the product of two primes except with negligible probability. The column Leakage expresses how many bits of information of the honest party’s shares of the primes that is leaked to the adversary. Here \(\tau \) means that \(\sum _{\beta \in B_1} \log \left( \frac{\beta }{\beta -1}\right) \) bits can be leaked to a malicious adversary. Furthermore, the adversary is allowed to pick a probability x with which it learns \((1+\epsilon )x\) extra bits. However, if the adversary does not learn the extra bits then the honest party learns that the adversary has acted maliciously.



Dishonest majority

Malicious secure

Prime trial division

Modulus trial division


Amount of candidates

Candidate generation

Construct modulus

(Bi)primality test


Our result\(^*\)

IND-CPA, \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {OT}}\), \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {CT}}\)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\pmb {O(1)}\)

\(O(\ell ^2/\log ^2(\ell ))\)

\(\pmb {O(\ell )}\)

\(\pmb {O(\ell ^2)}\)

\(O(s\cdot \ell ^{3})\)

\(\tau +2\)



\(\checkmark \)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\pmb {O(1)}\)

\(O(\ell ^2/\log ^2(\ell ))\)

\(\pmb {O(\ell )}\)

\(\pmb {O(\ell ^2)}\)

\(O(s\cdot \ell ^{3})\)




\(\checkmark \)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\pmb {O(1)}\)

\(O(\ell ^2/\log ^2(\ell ))\)

\(O(\ell ^{3})\)

\(O(\ell ^{3})\)

\(O(s^2\cdot \ell ^{3})\)


[PS98]\(^\dagger \)

\(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {OT}}\)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\pmb {O(1)}\)

\(O(\ell ^2/\log ^2(\ell ))\)

\(\pmb {O(\ell )}\)

\(\pmb {O(\ell ^2)}\)


\(\tau +2\)


PRG, \(\mathcal {F}_{\textsf {OT}}\)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\pmb {O(1)}\)

\(O(\ell ^2/\log ^2(\ell ))\)

\(\pmb {O(\ell )}\)

\(\pmb {O(\ell ^2)}\)

\(O(s\cdot \ell ^{3})\)




\(\checkmark \)

\(O(\ell )\)

\(\pmb {O(\ell /\log (\ell ))}\)

\(\pmb {O(\ell )}\)

\(\pmb {O(\ell ^2)}\)

\(O(s\cdot \ell ^3)\)



CRS, Strong RSA

\(\checkmark \)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\pmb {O(1)}\)

\(O(\ell ^2/\log ^2 (\ell ))\)

\(O(\ell ^3)\)

\(O(\ell ^3)\)

\(\pmb {o(s\cdot \ell ^3)}\)




\(\checkmark \)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\checkmark \)

\(\checkmark \)

\(O(1)^\ddagger \)

\(O(\ell ^2/\log ^2 \ell )\)

\(O(\ell ^3)\)

\(O(\ell ^3)\)

\(O(s\cdot \ell ^3)\)


\(^*\): For the malicious protocol \(O(s^2\cdot \ell ^3)\) operations are executed once per successful key pair generation.

\(^\dagger \): The authors do not describe how to ensure biprimality in case of a malicious adversary.

\(^\ddagger \): Constant round on average.

With regards to more concrete efficiency we recall that both our protocols and previous work have the same type of phases, working on randomly sampled candidates in a pipelined manner. Because of this feature, all protocols limit the amount of unsuitable candidates passing through to the expensive phases, by employing trial division. This leads to fewer executions of expensive phases and thus to greater concrete efficiency. In some protocols this filtering is applied both to individual prime candidates and to candidate moduli, leading to minimal executions of the expensive phases. Unfortunately this is not possible in all protocols. For this reason we also show in Table 1 which protocols manage to improve the expected execution time by doing trial division of the prime candidates, respectively the moduli.

To give a proper idea of the efficiency of the different protocols we must also consider the asymptotics. However, because of the diversity in primitives used in the previous protocols, and in the different phases, we try to do this by comparing the computational bit complexity. Furthermore to make the comparison as fair as possible we assume the best possible implementations available today are used for underlying primitives. In particular we assume an efficient OT extension is used for OTs [KOS15].

Based on the table we can make the following conclusions regarding the efficiency of our protocols. First, considering the semi-honest protocol; we see that the only real competition is Algesheimer et al. as they expect to test asymptotically fewer prime candidates than us. However, this comes at the price of a large amount of rounds requires, making it challenging to use efficiently over the Internet. Furthermore, unlike our protocol, they require an honest majority making it possible for them to leverage efficient information theoretic constructions.

For the malicious security model we see that the only real competition lies in the work of Poupard and Stern [PS98]. However, we note that they don’t provide a full maliciously secure protocol. In particular they do not describe how to do a biprimality test secure against a malicious and dishonest majority. Thus the only other protocol considering the same setting as us is the one by Hazay et al.. This is also the newest of the schemes and is considered the current state-of-the-art in this setting. However, this protocol requires asymptotically more operations for candidate generation, construction of modulus and the biprimality test.

Implementation. Below we outline the concrete implementation choices we made. We implement AES in counter mode, using AES-NI, with \(\kappa =128\) bit keys. For 1-out-of-2 OT (needed during the Construct Modulus phase) we use the maliciously secure OT extension of Keller et al. [KOS15]. For the base OTs we use the protocol of Peikert et al. [PVW08] and for the internal PRG we use AES-NI with the seed as key, in counter mode. For the random 1-out-of-\(\beta \) OT we use the random 1-out-of-2 OT above using the protocol of Naor and Pinkas [NP99]. For the coin-tossing we use the standard “commit to randomness and then open” approach.

In the Construct Modulus phase, instead of having each party sample the values \(h_{\alpha , 1},\dots ,h_{\alpha . 2\ell +3s},g_\alpha \in {\mathbb {Z}}_{\mathcal {P}}\) and send them to the other party, we instead have it sample a seed and generate these values through a PRG. The party then only needs to send the seed to the other party. This saves a large amount of communication complexity without making security compromises.

Our implementation implemented OT extension in batches of 8912 OTs. Whenever a batch of OTs is finished, the program calls a procedure which generates a new block of 8192 OTs. Most of the cryptographic operations were implemented using OpenSSL, but big-integer multiplication was implemented in assembler instead of using the OpenSSL implementation for efficiency reasons.

We did not implement yet the zero-knowledge argument or the two-party computation since they can be efficiently realized using existing implementations of garbled circuits (such as JustGarble [BHKR13] or TinyGarble [SHS+15]) by using the protocol of Jawurek et al. [JKO13] for zero-knowledge and the dual-execution approach [MF06] for the two-party computation. These protocols are only executed once in our scheme using well tested implementations, and thus, as is described later in this section, we can safely estimate that the effect on the total run time is marginal.

Experiments. We implemented our maliciously secure protocol and ran experiments on Azure, using Intel Xeon E5-2673 v.4 - 2.3 Ghz machines with 64 Gb RAM, connected by a 40.0 Gbps network. are pretty strong servers).

We used the code to run 50 computations of a shared 2048 bit modulus, and computed the average run time. The results are as follows:
  • With a single threaded execution, the average run time was 134 s.

  • With four threads, the average run time was 39.1 s.

  • With eight threads, the average run time was 35 s.

The run times showed a high variance (similar to the results of the implementation reported by Hazay et al. [HMRT12] for their protocol). For the single thread execution, the average run time was 134 s while the median run time was 84.9 s (the fastest execution took 8.2  s and the slowest execution took 542 s).

Focusing on the single thread execution, we measured the time consumed by different major parts of the protocol. The preparation of the OT extension tables took on average 12% of the run time, the multiplication protocol computing N took 66%, and the biprimality test took 7%. (These percentages were quite stable across all executions and showed little variance.) Overall these parts took 85% of the total run time. The bulk of the time was consumed by the secure multiplication protocol. In that protocol, most time was spent on computing the values \(z_{1}^{\alpha }, z_{2}^{\alpha }\) (line 4 in Fig. 3.8). This is not surprising since each of these computations computes \(2\ell +3s =2168\) bignum multiplications.

Note that these numbers exclude the time required to do the zero-knowledge argument of knowledge in Setup and the two-party computation in Proof of Honesty. The zero-knowledge argument of knowledge requires about 12,000 AND gates (for two AES computations), and our analysis in Appendix A shows that the number of AND gates that need to be evaluated in the circuits of the honesty proof is at most 22 million. We also measured a throughput of computing about 3.2 million AND gates in Yao’s protocol on the machines that we were using. Therefore we estimate that implementing these computations using garbled circuits will contribute about 7 s to the total time.

Comparing to previous work, the only other competitive protocol (for 2048 bit keys) with implementation work is the one by Hazay et al. [HMRT12]. Unfortunately their implementation is not publicly available and thus we are not able to make a comparison on the same hardware. However, we do not that the fastest time they report is 15 min on a 2.3 GHz dual-core Intel desktop, for their semi-honestly secure protocol.


  1. 1.

    We find it unrealistic that the a greater or smaller choice will be yield a more efficient execution of our protocol.


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Copyright information

© International Association for Cryptologic Research 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tore Kasper Frederiksen
    • 1
  • Yehuda Lindell
    • 2
    • 3
  • Valery Osheter
    • 3
  • Benny Pinkas
    • 2
  1. 1.Security LabAlexandra InstituteAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceBar-Ilan UniversityRamat GanIsrael
  3. 3.Unbound Tech Ltd.Petach TikvaIsrael

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