Advertisement

Summary Discussion

  • Nikos C. Apostolopoulos
Chapter

Abstract

Stretching is a physical manoeuvre used to increase the range of motion (ROM) about a joint by influencing the extensibility of muscle and connective (tendons, ligaments) tissue. With the magnitude of stretching defined by the intensity of the stretch, this references the size of the mechanical stimulus (load or force) placed on the aforementioned tissue. Within this manuscript, a comparison of low- versus high-intensity passive static stretching was investigated, with the first two studies measuring blood biomarkers for inflammation (hsCRP, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6). To our knowledge, these studies were the first to investigate the effects of passive static stretching intensity in humans with the use of these blood biomarkers. The third study, which compared low- to high-intensity passive static stretching, observed that low-intensity passive static stretching was more beneficial for decreasing muscle soreness, and increasing muscle function. Since soreness associated with DOMS affects athletic performance, a strategy introduced to diminish the severity of DOMS sooner, not only aids in the restoration of muscle function, but increases the athlete's ability to train and compete at a higher level. In addition, for nonathletes, the early alleviation from symptoms associated with DOMS postexercise increases their adherence to regular exercise.

Keywords

Magnitude of force Stretching intensity Inflammatory response Cytokines hsCRP DOMS Perceived muscle soreness Eccentric peak torque Isometric torque 

References

  1. Chatzinikolaou, A., Fatouros, I., Gourgoulis, V., Avloniti, A., Jamurtas, A. Z., Nikolaidis, M. G., et al. (2010). Time course of changes in performance and inflammatory responses after acute plyometric exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24, 1389–1398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cheung, K., Hume, P., & Maxwell, L. (2003). Delayed onset muscle soreness: Treatment strategies and performance factors. Sports Medicine, 33, 145–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cunniffe, B., Hore, A. J., Whitcombe, D. M., Jones, K. P., Davies, B., & Baker, J. S. (2011). Immunoendocrine responses over a three week international rugby union series. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 51, 329–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Fallon, K. E. (2001). The acute phase response and exercise: The ultramarathon as prototype exercise. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 11, 38–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Febbraio, M. A., Hiscock, N., Sacchetti, M., Fischer, C. P., & Pedersen, B. K. (2004). Interleukin-6 is a novel factor mediating glucose homeostasis during skeletal muscle contraction. Diabetes, 53, 1643–1648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jacobs, C. A., & Sciacia, A. D. (2011). Factors that influence the efficacy of stretching programs for patients with hypomobility. Sports Health, 3, 520–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kim, H. J., Lee, Y. H., & Kim, C. K. (2007). Biomarkers of muscle and cartilage damage and inflammation during a 200 km run. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 99, 443–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lund, A. J., Hurst, T. L., Tyrell, R. M., & Thompson, D. (2011). Markers of chronic inflammation with short-term changes in physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43, 578–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mooren, F. C., Lechtermann, A., Fobker, M., Brandt, B., Sorg, C., Volker, K., et al. (2006). The response of the novel pro-inflammatory molecules S100a8/A9 to exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27, 751–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Smith, L. L., Keating, M. N., Holbert, D., Spratt, D. J., Mccammon, M. R., Smith, S. S., et al. (1994). The effects of athletic massage on delayed onset muscle soreness, creatine kinase, and neutrophil count: A preliminary report. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 19, 93–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Taylor, C., Rogers, G., Goodman, C., Baynes, R. D., Bothwell, T. H., Bezwoda, W. R., et al. (1987). Hematologic, iron-related, and acute-phase protein responses to sustained strenuous exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 62, 464–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikos C. Apostolopoulos
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations