- 6.1Cohort studies are observational studies that are conducted in three fundamental steps:
Exclude people who have the disease outcome at the start of the study
Measure one or more exposures to define the cohorts
Determine the incidence of the disease outcome over time
Ideal measurements of the exposure should be accurate, precise, equitable, and timely.
Pharmacoepidemiology studies are observational studies that evaluate the consequences of medications or procedures.
- 6.4Analysis of cohort study data
Relative risk is a ratio of disease incidences that describes risk to an individual.
Attributable risk and population attributable risk are differences in disease incidences that describe risk to a population.
- 6.5Advantages of cohort studies include:
Can discern temporal relationships between exposures and disease
Can be used to efficiently study multiple disease outcomes
- 6.6Limitations of cohort studies include:
Confounding characteristics other than the exposure of interest may bias observed associations with disease
Inefficient design for studying rare diseases or those with long latency periods