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Confounding

  • Bryan Kestenbaum
Chapter

Abstract

Associations seen in observational studies that relate exposures to the occurrence of disease may or may not be indicative of causal relationships. The primary reason for uncertainty regarding causation in observational studies is the possibility of confounding. Conceptually, confounding occurs when other causes “stand in the way” of understanding a specific cause of interest. Specifically, confounding is present when characteristics other than the exposure of interest distort or bias the observed association of the exposure with disease.

Reference

  1. 1.
    Lemaitre RN, Siscovick DS, Raghunathan TE, Weinmann S, Arbogast P, Lin DY. Leisure-time physical activity and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(7):686–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bryan Kestenbaum
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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