Advertisement

Malignant: Polyps and Cancer

  • Alessio Pigazzi
  • Matthew T. BradyEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Clinical Gastroenterology book series (CG)

Abstract

Colon and rectal cancers are highly prevalent in the United States as well as worldwide. Surgery offers the opportunity for cure in many of these patients. Different minimally invasive surgery (MIS) platforms exist that afford numerous benefits to patients while offering similar oncologic outcomes to open surgery. These techniques can be laparoscopic, robotic, or a combination of the two. As surgeons continue to gain experience in these techniques, their adoption will likely continue to grow. It is important to understand the available minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of colon and rectal surgery and to understand the benefits each technique has to offer in order to guide the care of patients with colon and rectal cancer. Additionally, knowledge of what surgical options are available may help guide referrals of interested patients seeking specialty care to centers that specialize in laparoscopic and robotic surgery. This chapter summarizes the minimally invasive techniques commonly employed in the treatment of colon and rectal surgery, their benefits compared with open surgery, as well as the evidence supporting their use.

Keywords

Colon cancer Rectal cancer Colon polyps Rectal polyps Laparoscopy Transanal 

References

  1. 1.
    Albert MR, Atallah SB, Debeche-Adams TC, Izfar S, Larach SW. Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) for local excision of benign neoplasms and early-stage rectal cancer: efficacy and outcomes in the first 50 patients. Dis Colon Rectum. 2013;56:301–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andersen LP, Klein M, Gogenur I, Rosenberg J. Incisional hernia after open versus laparoscopic sigmoid resection. Surg Endosc. 2008;22:2026–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Atallah S, Albert M, Larach S. Transanal minimally invasive surgery: a giant leap forward. Surg Endosc. 2010;24:2200–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Benson AB 3rd, Venook AP, Cederquist L, Chan E, Chen YJ, Cooper HS, Deming D, Engstrom PF, Enzinger PC, Fichera A, Grem JL, Grothey A, Hochster HS, Hoffe S, Hunt S, Kamel A, Kirilcuk N, Krishnamurthi S, Messersmith WA, Mulcahy MF, Murphy JD, Nurkin S, Saltz L, Sharma S, Shibata D, Skibber JM, Sofocleous CT, Stoffel EM, Stotsky-Himelfarb E, Willett CG, Wu CS, Gregory KM, Deborah Freedman-Cass. Colon cancer, version 1.2017, NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2017;15:370–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bertelsen CA, Neuenschwander AU, Jansen JE, Wilhelmsen M, Kirkegaard-Klitbo A, Tenma JR, Bols B, Ingeholm P, Rasmussen LA, Jepsen LV, Iversen ER, Kristensen B, Gogenur I, Danish Colorectal Cancer G. Disease-free survival after complete mesocolic excision compared with conventional colon cancer surgery: a retrospective, population-based study. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16:161–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Biffi R, Luca F, Pozzi S, Cenciarelli S, Valvo M, Sonzogni A, Radice D, Ghezzi TL. Operative blood loss and use of blood products after full robotic and conventional low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision for treatment of rectal cancer. J Robot Surg. 2011;5:101–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Biondi A, Grosso G, Mistretta A, Marventano S, Toscano C, Drago F, Gangi S, Basile F. Laparoscopic vs. open approach for colorectal cancer: evolution over time of minimal invasive surgery. BMC Surg. 2013;13(Suppl 2):S12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bonjer HJ, Deijen CL, Abis GA, Cuesta MA, van der Pas MH, De Lange-De Klerk ES, Lacy AM, Bemelman WA, Andersson J, Angenete E, Rosenberg J, Fuerst A, Haglind E, COLOR II Study Group. A randomized trial of laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015a;372:1324–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bonjer HJ, Deijen CL, Haglind E, COLOR II Study Group. A randomized trial of laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015b;373:194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buess G, Hutterer F, Theiss J, Bobel M, Isselhard W, Pichlmaier H. A system for a transanal endoscopic rectum operation. Chirurg. 1984;55:677–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Therapy Study Group, Nelson H, Sargent DJ, Wieand HS, Fleshman J, Anvari M, Stryker SJ, Beart RW Jr, Hellinger M, Flanagan R Jr, Peters W, Ota D. A comparison of laparoscopically assisted and open colectomy for colon cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2050–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Engstrom PF, Arnoletti JP, Benson AB 3rd, Chen YJ, Choti MA, Cooper HS, Covey A, Dilawari RA, Early DS, Enzinger PC, Fakih MG, Fleshman J Jr, Fuchs C, Grem JL, Kiel K, Knol JA, Leong LA, Lin E, Mulcahy MF, Rao S, Ryan DP, Saltz L, Shibata D, Skibber JM, Sofocleous C, Thomas J, Venook AP, Willett C, National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: rectal cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2009;7:838–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gavagan JA, Whiteford MH, Swanstrom LL. Full-thickness intraperitoneal excision by transanal endoscopic microsurgery does not increase short-term complications. Am J Surg. 2004;187:630–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Green BL, Marshall HC, Collinson F, Quirke P, Guillou P, Jayne DG, Brown JM. Long-term follow-up of the Medical Research Council CLASICC trial of conventional versus laparoscopically assisted resection in colorectal cancer. Br J Surg. 2013;100:75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guillou PJ, Quirke P, Thorpe H, Walker J, Jayne DG, Smith AM, Heath RM, Brown JM, MRC CLASICC Trial Group. Short-term endpoints of conventional versus laparoscopic-assisted surgery in patients with colorectal cancer (MRC CLASICC trial): multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;365:1718–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Heald RJ, Husband EM, Ryall RD. The mesorectum in rectal cancer surgery – the clue to pelvic recurrence? Br J Surg. 1982;69:613–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jayne D, Pigazzi A, Marshall H, Croft J, Corrigan N, Copeland J, Quirke P, West N, Rautio T, Thmoassen N, Tilney H, Gudgeon M, Bianchi PP, Edlin R, Hulm C, Brown J. Effect of robotic-assisted vs conventional laparoscopic surgery on risk of conversion to open laparotomy among patients undergoing resection for rectal cancer: the ROLARR randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017;318(16):1569–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kang SB, Park JW, Jeong SY, Nam BH, Choi HS, Kim DW, Lim SB, Lee TG, Kim DY, Kim JS, Chang HJ, Lee HS, Kim SY, Jung KH, Hong YS, Kim JH, Sohn DK, Kim DH, Oh JH. Open versus laparoscopic surgery for mid or low rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (COREAN trial): short-term outcomes of an open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11:637–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kidane B, Chadi SA, Kanters S, Colquhoun PH, Ott MC. Local resection compared with radical resection in the treatment of T1N0M0 rectal adenocarcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2015;58:122–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Meshikhes AW. Controversy of hand-assisted laparoscopic colorectal surgery. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:5662–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Middleton PF, Sutherland LM, Maddern GJ. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: a systematic review. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:270–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Moore JS, Cataldo PA, Osler T, Hyman NH. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is more effective than traditional transanal excision for resection of rectal masses. Dis Colon Rectum. 2008;51:1026–30; discussion 1030–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mutch MG. The ASCRS textbook of colon and rectal surgery. New York: Springer; 2016.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Panteleimonitis S, Ahmed J, Harper M, Parvaiz A. Critical analysis of the literature investigating urogenital function preservation following robotic rectal cancer surgery. World J Gastrointest Surg. 2016;8:744–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pigazzi A, Ellenhorn JD, Ballantyne GH, Paz IB. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Surg Endosc. 2006;20:1521–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Veldkamp R, Kuhry E, Hop WC, Jeekel J, Kazemier G, Bonjer HJ, Haglind E, Pahlman L, Cuesta MA, Msika S, Morino M, Lacy AM, COlon Cancer Laparoscopic or Open Resection Study Group (COLOR). Laparoscopic surgery versus open surgery for colon cancer: short-term outcomes of a randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2005;6:477–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang G, Wang Z, Jiang Z, Liu J, Zhao J, Li J. Male urinary and sexual function after robotic pelvic autonomic nerve-preserving surgery for rectal cancer. Int J Med Robot. 2017;13:e1725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Whiteford MH. The ASCRS textbook of colon and rectal surgery. New York: Springer; 2016.Google Scholar

Suggested Readings

  1. National Cancer Institute. Cancer stat facts: colon and rectum cancer [Online]. National Cancer Institute. Available: https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/colorect.html. Accessed.
  2. Prevention, C. F. D. C. A. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/colorectal/index.htm. Accessed.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Division of Colon and Rectal SurgeryUniversity of California Irvine Medical CenterOrangeUSA

Personalised recommendations