Innovation and Technical Change

  • Gerben Bakker
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Economic History book series (PEHS)


Developed countries would need an economy three to four times their present size to provide the same outputs but with 1820 technology. This astounding technological advancement demands an explanation. This chapter contrasts three different approaches to the study of innovation across the long run: conceptual, direct and indirect. For each, its author provides important examples from the economics and economic history literatures.

JEL Classification

O14 O31 O34 N70 

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerben Bakker
    • 1
  1. 1.London School of Economics and Political ScienceLondonUK

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