Advertisement

A Smart Air-Conditioning Plant for Efficient Energy Buildings

  • Roberto Bruno
  • Natale Arcuri
  • Giorgio Cuconati
Chapter
Part of the Internet of Things book series (ITTCC)

Abstract

The spread of renewable energy technologies in the building sector has produced the new figure of “prosumer”, able to consume and produce energy simultaneously. In this context, a correct management of the energy fluxes is required to increase user remuneration. All of this, paired with the use of the emergent IoT technologies, allowed the realization of a Smart Ecosystem devoted to make effective the process of producing, storing and consuming energy. Considering PV generators, the self-produced electricity surplus has to be transferred with advantageous conditions, alternatively it has to be stored. Air-conditioning plants employing heat pumps represent a useful option for the rational management of renewable electricity because the same system can be used as an alternative to “electric storage”, cheaper and more reliable than traditional batteries. Heat pumps can be exploited to produce thermal or cooling energy and store it in a suitable tank, though the building does not require them, and to conciliate the time shift between energy demand and offer. In presence of a saturated storage tank, the same building could be used as a further thermal accumulator by exploiting radiant emission systems to activate its thermal mass, by means of either overheating or undercooling strategies. The combination of these solutions allows for noticeable energy and economic savings and a rational use of renewable sources. However, a smart control system is required to make all the various involved devices communicating and coordinating among each other. A smart air conditioning system and the correspondent control strategies adopted for its management, based on the employment of PV driven heat pumps with thermal storage connected to a radiant emission system, is introduced.

References

  1. 1.
    ENEA, Italian agency on the energy efficiency, Analysis and results on the energy efficiency policy in Italy, Executive summary, 2017Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Aswani, N. Master, J. Taneja, A. Krioukov, D. Culler, C. Tomlin, Energy-efficient building HVAC control using hybrid system LBMPC, in The Proceedings of 4th IFAC Conference, International Federation of Automatic Control, 2012Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. Nicoletti, N. Arcuri, R. Bruno, G. Nicoletti, A technical and environmental comparison between hydrogen and some fossil fuels. Energy Convers. Manag. 89, 205–213 (2015)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Oliveti, N. Arcuri, R. Bruno, A. Mazzuca, Energy performances of an absorption chiller supplied by solar collectors in mediterranean area, in The Proceedings of the ISES Solar Word Congress 2005, Florida, USA, 2005Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.G. Morgan, Solar Assisted Heat Pumps. Sol. Energy 28(2), 129–135 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    K.J. Chua, S.K. Chou, W.M. Yang, Advances in heat pump systems: a review. Appl. Energy 87(12), 3611–3624 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Castillo-Cagigal, E. Caamano-Martın, E. Matallanas, D. Masa-Bote, A. Gutierrez, F. Monasterio-Huelin, J. Jiménez-Leube, PV self-consumption optimization with storage and active DSM for the residential sector. Sol. Energy 85, 2338–2348 (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H.J. Sauer, R.H. Howell, Heat Pump Systems (Wiley, New York, NY, 1983)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/ECGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Dikici, A. Akbulut, Performance characteristics and energy–exergy analysis of solar-assisted heat pump system. Build. Environ. 43(11), 1961–1972 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    T.T. Chow, A review on PV/T solar technology. Appl. Energy 87(2), 365–379 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Jie, L. Keliang, C. Tin-tai, P. Gang, H. Wie, H. Hanfeng, Performance analysis of a photovoltaic heat pump. Appl. Energy 85(8), 680–693 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Feldman, G. Barbose, R. Margolis, R. Wiser, N. Darghouth, A. Goodrich, Photovoltaic (PV) pricing trends: historical, recent, and near-term projections, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2014, https://escholarship.org/uc/item/06b4h95q
  14. 14.
    G. Pei, J. Ji, K. Liu, H. He, A. Jiang, Numerical study of PV/T-SAHP system. J. Zhejiang Univ. 9(7), 970–980 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    I. Dincer, M. Rosen, TES: Systems and Applications (Wiley edition, New York, NY, 2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. Arteconi, N.J. Hewitt, F. Polonara, Domestic demand-side management (DSM): role of heat pumps and TES systems. Appl. Therm. Eng. 51(1–2), 155–165 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    N. Arcuri, R. Bruno, S. Ruffolo, Radiant floor system supplied by solar collectors. Thermal and economic analysis, in The Proceedings of the 5th ISES Europe Solar Conference, Freiburg, Germany, vol. I, pp. 86–95, 2004Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S.P. Corgnati, M. Perino, G.V. Fracastoro, P.V. Nielsen, Experimental and numerical analysis of air and radiant cooling systems in offices. Energy Build. 44, 801–806 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    N. Arcuri, R. Bruno, Energy performances of radiant ceiling heating system supplied by solar collectors, in The Proceedings of the Second Mediterranean Congress of Climatization—Climamed, Madrid, 2005Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. Oliveti, N. Arcuri, R. Bruno, Resa termica di soffitti radianti che impiegano tubi capillari per il riscaldamento e il raffrescamento degli ambienti, in The Proceedings of the 62° A.T.I. Conference, Cuzzolin Edition, Naples, pp. 119–123, 2007Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    N. Arcuri, R. Bruno, Prestazioni termiche di sistemi di raffrescamento a soffitto radiante e relative strategie di controllo, in The Proceedings of the 60° ATI Conference, Rome, 2005Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    R. Bruno, N. Arcuri, G. Pizzuti, The prediction of thermal loads in building by the EN ISO 13790 dynamic model: a comparison with TRNSYS. Energy Proc. 101, 192–199 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. Bruno, N. Arcuri, G. Pizzuti, A simplified hourly calculation code to evaluate the buildings heating load: a case study for Italian conditions. Simul. Series 48, 174–180 (2016)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    ISO 13790, Thermal performance of buildings—calculation of energy use for space heating and cooling, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 2005Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    N. Arcuri, R. Bruno, P. Bevilacqua, Influence of the optical and geometrical properties of indoor environments for thermal performances of chilled ceilings. Energy Build. 88, 229–237 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    G. Belli, A. Giordano, C. Mastroianni, D. Menniti, A. Pinnarelli, L. Scarcello, N. Sorrentino, M. Stillo, A unified model for the optimal management of electrical and thermal equipment of a prosumer in a DR environment. IEEE Trans. Smart Grids,  https://doi.org/10.1109/tsg.2017.2778021
  27. 27.
    D. Menniti, N. Sorrentino, A. Pinnarelli, A. Burgio, G. Brusco, G. Belli, In the future smart cities: coordination of micro smart grids in a virtual energy District, in International Symposium Power on Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), pp. 676–682, 2014,  https://doi.org/10.1109/speedam.2014.6872123

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Bruno
    • 1
  • Natale Arcuri
    • 1
  • Giorgio Cuconati
    • 1
  1. 1.Mechanical, Energetic and Management Engineering DepartmentUniversity of CalabriaRendeItaly

Personalised recommendations