Advertisement

Energy Security

  • Basanta Kumara Behera
  • Ajit Varma
Chapter

Abstract

Energy is the strength and vitality required for sustained physical or mental activity. The common unit for energy (E) is the joule, denoted by J. It is equal to the energy transferred to (or work done on) an object when a force of 1 Newton acts on that object in the direction of its motion through a distance of one metre (1 Newton metre or N·m). There are two main forms of energy, called potential energy and kinetic energy. Both forms of energy help in powering business and manufacturing and transportation of goods and services. There are many different ways in which the abundance of energy around us can be stored, converted and amplified for our use.

References

  1. 1.
    Raphael, Sam and Doug Stokes (2010). Energy Security. In: Alan Collins (ed), Contemporary Security Studies. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kerr, Lucas de Oliveira (2012). Energia Como Recurso de Poder Na Política Internacional: Geopolitica, Estrategia e o Papel do Centro de Decisao Energetica. PhD Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Available at: http://www.lume.ufrgs.br/handle/10183/76222
  3. 3.
    Yergin, D (2000). Ensuring Energy Security. Foreign Affairs, 84(4): 69–82.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    World Energy Outlook (2011) www.worldenergyoutlook.org
  5. 5.
    Jeffrey, P Bialos (1989). Oil imports and national security. Univ. of Pennsylvania Journal of International Business Law, 11: 235–300.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    E InfoDisc (1998). 25th Anniversary of the 1973 Oil Embargo. Energy Trends since the First Major US Energy Crisis. Energy Information Administration.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Taylor, J (1993). Discretion versus policy rules in practice (PDF). Carnegie–Rochester Conference. Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy 39: 195–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hamilton, J (2009). Causes and consequences of the oil shock of 2007–2008 (PDF). Brookings Institution. dss.ucsd.edu/~jhamilto/Hamilton_oil_shock_08
  9. 9.
    World Population Prospects, The 2015 Revision: Key Findings and Advance Tables. United Nations Working Paper No.EAS/P/WP.241; https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/publications/files/key_findings_wpp_2015
  10. 10.
    www.wiki.metal-invest.pl/page_Energy_security (2000). Oil Crisis. US Senator Bob Bennett.
  11. 11.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_securityCNN: Oil majors question Bush biofuel plan. February 15, 2007 Archived February 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. 12.
    https://ec.europa.eu/energy/enEuropean Energy Security Strategy [COM(2014)330]
  13. 13.
    In-depth study of European Energy Security [SWD(2014)330]Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    https://books.google.coEuropean Commission (2008a). 20 20 by 2020, Europe’s Climate Change Opportunity, COM(2008) 30 final, Brussels
  15. 15.
    Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Enrolled as Agreed to or Passed by Both House and Senate). Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_policy_of_the_United_States
  16. 16.
    Grossman, Peter (2013). U.S. Energy Policy and the Pursuit of Failure. Cambridge University Press. p. 416. ISBN 978-1107005174.
  17. 17.
    Hamilton, Michael S (2013). Energy Policy Analysis: A Conceptual Framework. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency. Dsireusa.org. Retrieved 2012-03-30.
  19. 19.
    Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation. Annual report on execution of the federal budget (updated March 22, 2016).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Soldatkin, Vladimir (2016). Russian oil output hits post-Soviet record high in December, 2015, Reuters (January 2, 2016).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    EIA estimates based on Eurostat. International trade data and Russian export statistics and partner country import statistics, Global Trade Tracker.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    International Atomic Energy Association. Power Reactor Information Service, accessed September 16, 2016.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li Xing and Woodrow, W Clark (2010). Energy Concern in China’s Policy-Making Calculation: From Self-reliance, Market-dependence to Green Energy. Dir Research Series Working Papers No. 143, ISSN: 0904-8154, Published by DIR & Department of Culture and Global Studies.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    International Energy Agency (2007). World Energy Outlook https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/…/world-energy-outlook-2007.html
  25. 25.
    United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015). www.un.org/esa/population/
  26. 26.
    Eric Yep (2011). India’s Widening Energy Deficit. The Wall Street Journal; blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2011/03/09/indias-widening-energy-deficit/
  27. 27.
    Sasidhar, N (2011). Energy resources in India. https://www.scribd.com/doc/58789317/Energy-Resources-in-India
  28. 28.
    Executive Summary Power Sector September 2016 (pdf). Report. Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of Power, Govt. of India. 30 September 2016.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chandrasekaran, Kaavya (10 June 2016). Capacity for renewable energy in India hits 42,850 mw; surpasses capacity of hydel projects. The Economic Times of India.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Physical Progress (Achievements). Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Physical Progress (Achievements) (web). Report. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. of India. Retrieved 18 November 2016.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
    Smith, A, T Stehly and W Musial (2015). 2014–2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report. Golden, Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Navigant (2016). World Wind Energy Market Update 2016. Navigant Research.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Navigant (2016). U.S. Wind Market Outlook – Pathways to Competitiveness. Presentation to WINDPOWER 2016. May 24, 2016.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Miller, NW, B Leonardi and RD’Aquila (2015). Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation. NREL/TP-5D00–64822. Golden, Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Milligan, M, B Kirby, T Acker, M Alstrom, B Frew, M Goggin, W Lasher, M Marquis and D Osborn (2015). Review and Status of Wind Integration and Transmission in the United States: Key Issues and Lessons Learned. NREL/TP – 5D00 – 61911. Golden, Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Moné, C, T Stehly and B Maples (2015). 2014 Cost of Wind Energy Review. Golden, Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Technical Report, NREL/TP-6 A20–64 281.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    McKinsey and Company (2015). Supply Chain Management. www.mckinsey.com/careers/search-jobs/…/consultant-supply-chain-management-058
  40. 40.
    Carole Jacques (2013). New Technologies Multiply Oil Reserves Six-fold to 10.2 Trillion Barrels, Lux Research, Inc.; www.luxresearchinc.com/news…releases/…/new-technologies-multiply-oil-reserves-si .
  41. 41.
    Mata, TM, AA Martins and NS Caetano (2010). Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications: A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy. Rev., 14 (1): 217–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chisti, Y (2007). Biodiesel from microalgae. Biot. Adv., 25(3): 294–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Schenk, PM et al. (2008). Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production. Bioenerg. Res., 1(1): 20–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kamm, B, M Kamm, PR Gruber and S Kromus (2006). Biorefinery systems – An overview. In: Kamm B, Gruber PR and Kamm M, editors. Biorefineries – industrial processes and products: Status quo and future directions (Vol. 1). Weinheim, Germany. Wiley-VCHVerlag GmbH.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Biofuels Research Advisory Council (2006). Biofuels in the European union: A vision for 2030 and beyond. Final draft report (PDF). [Accessed: June 13, 2011]. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/pdf/draft_vision_report_en.pdf
  46. 46.
  47. 47.
    IRENA, Renewable energy and jobs. Annual review 2015, IRENA.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
  49. 49.
    Rebecca Harrington (2016). Ranked: The top 10 solar energy countries in the world business. www.businessinsider.com/best-solar-power-countries-2016-3
  50. 50.
    Karl Mathiesen (2016). First Solar starts commercial operation of 250 MW solar project in US. www.power-technology.com/…/newsfirst-solar-starts-commercial-operation-on-250m.
  51. 51.
    Indianapolis Airport to construct Vatican City sized solar installation (2013). www.climatechangenews.com/…/indianapolis-airport-to-construct-vatican-city-sized-s.
  52. 52.
    Jana Kasperkevic (2016). US solar industry now employs more workers than oil and gas. https://www.theguardian.com › Business › Energy industry
  53. 53.
    AWEA 4th quarter 2014 Public Market Report (PDF). American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). January 2014. Retrieved February 1, 2014.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Electric Power Monthly (PDF). Report. U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. 4 Mar 2015.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    AWEA. American Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 9 February 2017. AWEA 2016 Fourth Quarter Market Report.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    GWEC. Global Wind Report 2015, Annual Market Update (PDF).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    US wind generation reached 5.5% of the grid in 2016. American Wind Energy Association. March 6, 2017.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Alta Wind Energy Center is the nation’s largest wind facility. California Energy Commission. Retrieved 12 December 2016.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    American Wind Energy Association (2009). Annual Wind Industry Report, Year Ending 2008, pp. 9–10.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hall, DO and JI Scrase (1998). Will Biomass be the Environmentally friendly fuel of the Future? Biomass Bioenergy 15: 357–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Euglena: Tiny algae, great promise – Japan Today (2016). https://www.japantoday.com/category/food/view/euglena-tiny-algae-great-promise
  62. 62.
  63. 63.
  64. 64.

Copyright information

© Capital Publishing Company, New Delhi, India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Basanta Kumara Behera
    • 1
  • Ajit Varma
    • 1
  1. 1.Amity UniversityAmity Institute of Microbial TechnologyNoidaIndia

Personalised recommendations