Advertisement

The Roots and Routes of Reggae from Jamaica to Italy

  • Susanna Scarparo
  • Mathias Sutherland Stevenson
Chapter
Part of the Pop Music, Culture and Identity book series (PMCI)

Abstract

This chapter discusses reggae’s emergence from the sound systems first in Jamaica and later in London during the 1960s and the 1970s. While both reggae’s international commercialization and its subcultural associations in London were to be crucial to its eventual re-contextualization, glocalization, and transculturation in Italy from the early 1980s, this process was initially delayed due to the rigid ideology of Italy’s Marxist youth counter-culture of the 1970s. Nevertheless, the chapter argues that the early local Italian reggae scenes of the 1980s emerged from the remains of the 1970s movement, building upon its synthesis of local and foreign cultural forms and its politicization of musical consumption and production.

Works Cited

  1. Barrow, Steve, and Peter Dalton. 2004. The Rough Guide to Reggae. London: Rough Guides. Print.Google Scholar
  2. Bettini, Stefano, and Pier Tosi. 2009. Paperback reggae: Origini, protagonisti, storia e storie della musica in levare. Firenze: Editoriale Olimpia. Print.Google Scholar
  3. Bunna, et al. 2011. Trent’anni in levare: Storia della storia di Africa Unite. Genova: Chinaski. Print.Google Scholar
  4. Carrà, Raffaella. 1970. REGGAE RRR. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMJB8iuepuQ. Accessed 9 Feb 2018.
  5. Chang, Kevin O.B., and Wayne Chen. 1998. Reggae Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Print.Google Scholar
  6. Connell, John, and Chris Gibson. 2004. World Music: Deterritorializing Place and Identity. Progress in Human Geography 28 (3): 342–361. Print.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Curtis, James M. 1987. Rock Eras: Interpretations of Music and Society, 1954–1984. Bowling Green Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. Print.Google Scholar
  8. Dawson, Ashley. 2005. ‘Love Music, Hate Racism’: The Cultural Politics of the Rock Against Racism Campaigns, 1976–1981. Postmodern Culture 16 (1): 1–13. Print.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ———. 2007. Mongrel Nation: Diasporic Culture and the Making of Postcolonial Britain. Ann Arbor: University Press of Michigan. Print.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Di Paola, Pietro. 2010. Popular Songs, Social Struggles and Conflictual Identities in Mestre-Marghera (1970s–1980s). In Radical Cultures and Local Identities, ed. Krista Cowman and Ian Packer, 111–127. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars. Print.Google Scholar
  11. Edmonds, Ennis. 1998. Dread ‘I’ In-a-Babylon: Ideological Resistance and Cultural Revitalization. In Chanting Down Babylon: The Rastafari Reader, ed. Nathaniel S. Murrell, William D. Spencer, and Adrian A. McFarlane, 23–35. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Print.Google Scholar
  12. Epifani, Mattia, dir. 2011. Rockman. Goodfellas. DVD.Google Scholar
  13. Fabbri, Franco. 2007. Orchestral Manoeuvres in the 1970s: L’Orchestra Co-operative, 1974–1983. Popular Music 26 (3): 409–428. Print.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fiori, Umberto. 1984. Rock Music and Politics in Italy. Popular Music 4: 261–277. Print.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fischlin, Daniel. 2003. Take One/Rebel Musics: Human Rights, Resistant Sounds, and the Politics of Music Making. In Rebel Musics: Human Rights, Resistant Sounds, and the Politics of Music Making, ed. Ajay Heble and Daniel Fischlin, 10–43. Montréal: Black Rose Books. Print.Google Scholar
  16. FusoElektronique. 2011. Stelle. Speciale Bob Marley—Parte 1. Rai. Documentary. YouTube, May 15. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w_7xgQqPtrw. Accessed 7 July 2011.
  17. Ginsborg, Paul. 1990. A History of Contemporary Italy: Society and Politics 1943–1980. London: Penguin. Print.Google Scholar
  18. Goodyer, Ian. 2009. Crisis Music: The Cultural Politics of Rock Against Racism. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Print.Google Scholar
  19. Grispigni, Marco. 1996. Combattenti di strada. La nascita delle culture giovanili in Italia. In Ragazzi senza tempo: Immagini, musica, conflitti delle culture giovanili, ed. Massimo Canevacci et al., 17–64. Genova: Coast and Nolan. Print.Google Scholar
  20. Guarnaccia, Matteo. 2010. Re Nudo Pop & altri festival: Il sogno di Woodstock in Italia, 1968–1976. Milano: Vololibero. Print.Google Scholar
  21. Gunst, Laurie. 2003. Born Fi’ Dead. Edinburgh: Canongate. Print.Google Scholar
  22. Hebdige, Dick. 1979. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Routledge. Print.Google Scholar
  23. Henzell, Perry, dir. 1972. The Harder They Come. New World Pictures. Film.Google Scholar
  24. Ho, Christine G.T., and Keith Nurse. 2005. Globalisation, Diaspora and Caribbean Popular Culture. Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers. Print.Google Scholar
  25. Jones, Simon. 1988. Black Culture White Youth: The Reggae Tradition from JA to UK. London: Macmillan. Print.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Katsiaficas, Georgy. 1997. The Subversion of Politics: European Autonomous Social Movements and the Decolonization of Everyday Life. Oakland: AK Press. Print.Google Scholar
  27. King, Stephen A. 2002. Reggae, Rastafari and the Rhetoric of Social Control. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. Print.Google Scholar
  28. Letts, Don, dir. 2016. The Harder They Come. BBC. Film.Google Scholar
  29. Liperi, Felice. 1996. L’Italia s’è desta: Tecno-splatter e posse in rivolta. In Ragazzi senza tempo: Immagini, musica, conflitti delle culture giovanili, ed. Massimo Canevacci et al., 163–205. Genova: Coast and Nolan. Print.Google Scholar
  30. Lipsitz, George. 1994. Dangerous Crossroads: Popular Music, Postmodernism, and the Poetics of Place. London: Verso. Print.Google Scholar
  31. Lull, James. 2000. Media, Communication, Culture: A Global Approach. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Polity Press. Print.Google Scholar
  32. Lumley, Robert. 1991. States of Emergency: Cultures of Revolt in Italy from 1968 to 1978. London and New York: Verso Books. Print.Google Scholar
  33. Manfredi, Tommaso. 2008. Dai Caraibi al Salento: Nascita, evoluzione e identità del reggae in Puglia. Lecce: AGM. Print.Google Scholar
  34. Manuel, Peter, and Wayne Marshall. 2006. The Riddim Method: Aesthetics, Practice, and Ownership in Jamaican Dancehall. Popular Music 25 (3): 447–470. Print.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Manuel, Peter, Kenneth Bilby, and Michael Largey. 1995. Caribbean Currents. Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Print.Google Scholar
  36. Marshall, Wayne, and Ronald Radano. 2013. Musical Antinomies of Race and Empire. In The Cambridge History of World Music, ed. Philip V. Bohlman, 726–743. Cambridge University Press. Print.Google Scholar
  37. O’Connor, Alan. 2008. Punk Record Labels and the Struggle for Autonomy: The Emergence of DIY. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. Print.Google Scholar
  38. Pedote, Gianfilippo, and Lele Pinardi. 1980. Reggae: Origini, storia e protagonisti della musica giamaicana. Milano: Gammalibri. Print.Google Scholar
  39. Potter, Russell A. 1995. Spectacular Vernaculars: Hip Hop and the Politics of Postmodernism. Albany: State University of New York Press. Print.Google Scholar
  40. Stolzoff, Norman. 2000. Wake the Town and Tell the People: Dancehall Culture in Jamaica. London: Duke University Press. Print.Google Scholar
  41. Thomas, Deborah A. 2004. Modern Blackness: Nationalism, Globalization, and the Politics of Culture in Jamaica. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Print.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Valcarenghi, Andrea. 2007. Underground: A Pugno Chiuso! Rimini: NdA Press. Print.Google Scholar
  43. valeriovda. 1980. Peter Tosh—Mystic Man @ ‘C’era due volte’ 1980. https://youtu.be/llWCjIPkiSM. Accessed 4 Dec 2013.
  44. Veal, Michael E. 2007. Dub: Soundscapes and Shattered Songs in Jamaican Reggae. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press. Print.Google Scholar

Discography

  1. Africa Unite. 2008. Biografica Unite. Universal Music. 2CD/DVD.Google Scholar
  2. Small, Millie. 1964. My Boy Lollipop. My Boy Lollipop. Fontana. EP.Google Scholar
  3. Symarip. 1970. Skinhead Moonstomp. Trojan Records. LP.Google Scholar
  4. The Wailers. 1973. Catch a Fire. Island Records. LP.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanna Scarparo
    • 1
  • Mathias Sutherland Stevenson
    • 2
  1. 1.The Australian National UniversityCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of ArtsMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations