Advertisement

Neural Dissolution, Dissociation and Stress in ADHD

  • Petr Bob
  • Jana Konicarova
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Psychology book series (BRIEFSPSYCHOL)

Abstract

According to epidemiological data ADHD is related to significantly increased levels of mental stress and also dissociative symptoms may manifest in ADHD (Endo et al. 2006; Johnson et al. 2007; Sugar and Ford 2012; Martinez et al. 2016). In this context, disturbed developmental processes might play a key role in individual ontogenesis of resilience mechanisms which may create increased sensitivity with respect stressful experiences that may lead to manifestations of pathological dissociative processes that increase attentional and affective disturbances in many children with ADHD. In a wider context these findings suggest new contexts and explanations of various interesting ADHD related topics such as primitive reflexes, balance difficulties, disturbed attentional and motor functions, stress experiences and problem of consciousness and its integrative functions in ADHD. In this context ADHD development is also linked to deficits of neural mechanisms that might underlie specific changes in attentional functions and decreased cognitive control that frequently may be linked to disturbed inhibitory functions (Barkley 1997; Solanto et al. 2001; Sonuga-Barke 2003; Castellanos et al. 2006; Toplak et al. 2005; Antonini et al. 2015; Martinez et al. 2016). This process of disinhibition may cause that more primitive functions may become incongruent with higher levels of attentional and cognitive neural processes, which may lead to neural interference that is also observed as a response to cognitive conflict. This developmentally based neural dysregulation and “dissolution” might explain basic neural mechanisms related to increased sensitivity with respect to stress stimuli from social environment and high occurrence of dissociative symptoms in ADHD children.

Keywords

ADHD Dissolution Dissociation Stress Primitive reflexes 

References

  1. Allen, M. C., & Capute, A. J. (1986). The evolution of primitive reflexes in extremely premature infants. Pediatric Research, 20, 1284–1289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andermann, A. A. (1997). Hughlings Jackson’s deductive science of the nervous system: A product of his thought collective and formative years. Neurology, 48, 471–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antonini, T. N., Becker, S. P., Tamm, L., & Epstein, J. N. (2015). Hot and cool executive functions in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 21, 584–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnsten, A. F. (2009). Toward a new understanding of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder pathophysiology: An important role for prefrontal cortex dysfunction. CNS Drugs, 23(Suppl 1), 33–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baillieux, H., De Smet, H. J., Paquier, P. F., De Deyn, P. P., & Marien, P. (2008). Cerebellar neurocognition: Insights into the bottom of the brain. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 110(8), 763–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barkley, R. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 65–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berquin, P. C., Giedd, J. N., Jacobsen, L. K., Hamburger, S. D., Krain, A. L., Rapoport, J. L., & Castellanos, F. X. (1998). Cerebellum in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A morphometric MRI study. Neurology, 50(4), 1087–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buderath, P., Gärtner, K., Frings, M., Christiansen, H., Schoch, B., Konczak, J., Gizewski, E. R., Hebebrand, J., & Timmann, D. (2009). Postural and gait performance in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Gait & Posture, 29(2), 249–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Capute, A. J., & Accardo, P. J. (1991). Developmental disabilities in infancy and childhood. Baltimore: Paul Brooks.Google Scholar
  10. Castellanos, F. X., Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Milham, M. P., & Tannock, R. (2006). Characterizing cognition in ADHD: Beyond executive dysfunction. Trends in Cognitive Science, 10, 117–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. D’Agati, E., Casarelli, L., Pitzianti, M. B., & Pasini, A. (2010). Overflow movements and white matter abnormalities in ADHD. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 34(3), 441–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ellenberger, H. F. (1970). The discovery of the unconscious: The history and evolution of dynamic psychiatry. New York: Basic.Google Scholar
  13. Ellis, M. D., Drogos, J., Carmona, C., Keller, T., & Dewald, J. P. (2012). Neck rotation modulates flexion synergy torques indicating an ipsilateral reticulospinal source for impairment in stroke. Journal of Neurophysiology, 108(11), 3096–3104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Endo, T., Sugiyama, T., & Someya, T. (2006). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and dissociative disorder among abused children. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 60, 434–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fagiolini, M., Jensen, C. L., & Champagne, F. A. (2009). Epigenetic influences on brain development and plasticity. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 19, 207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Franz, E. A., & Gillett, G. (2011). John Hughlings Jackson’s evolutionary neurology: A unifying framework for cognitive neuroscience. Brain, 134, 3114–3120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ghanizadeh, A. (2011). Predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 15(7), 604–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hogan, R. E., & Kaiboriboon, K. (2003). The “dreamy state”: John Hughlings-Jackson’s ideas of epilepsy and consciousness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1740–1747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hogan, R. E., & Kaiboriboon, K. (2004). John Hughlings-Jackson’s writings on the auditory aura and localization of the auditory cortex. Epilepsia, 45, 834–837.Google Scholar
  20. Jackson, J. H. (1884). The Croonian lectures on evolution and dissolution of the nervous system. British Medical Journal, 1, 591–593, 660–3, 703–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jackson, J. H. (1931). Selected writings of John Hughlins Jackson. In J. Taylor (Ed.), On epilepsy and epileptiform convulsions (Vol. 1). London: Hodder and Stoughton.Google Scholar
  22. Jacyna, L. S. (2011). Process and progress: John Hughlings Jackson’s philosophy of science. Brain, 134, 3121–3126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Johnson, K. A., Robertson, I. H., Kelly, S. P., Silk, T. J., Barry, E., Dáibhis, A., Watchorn, A., Keavey, M., Fitzgerald, M., Gallagher, L., Gill, M., & Bellgrove, M. A. (2007). Dissociation in performance of children with ADHD and high-functioning autism on a task of sustained attention. Neuropsychologia, 45, 2234–2245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Keshavan, M. S., & Yeragani, V. K. (1987). Primitive reflexes in psychiatry. Lancet, 1, 1264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kolb, B., & Gibb, R. (2011). Brain plasticity and behaviour in the developing brain. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 20, 265–276.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Konicarova, J., & Bob, P. (2012). Retained primitive reflexes and ADHD in children. Activitas Nervosa Superior, 54, 135–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Links, K. A., Merims, D., Binns, M. A., Freedman, M., & Chow, T. W. (2010). Prevalence of primitive reflexes and Parkinsonian signs in dementia. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 37, 601–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Makris, N., Biederman, J., Monuteaux, M. C., & Seidman, L. J. (2009). Towards conceptualizing a neural systems-based anatomy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Neuroscience, 31(1–2), 36–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Martinez, L., Prada, E., Satler, C., Tavares, M. C., & Tomaz, C. (2016). Executive dysfunctions: The role in attention deficit hyperactivity and post-traumatic stress neuropsychiatric disorders. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1230.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01230.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. McPhillips, M., & Jordan-Black, J. A. (2007). Primary reflex persistence in children with reading difficulties (dyslexia): A cross-sectional study. Neuropsychologia, 45, 748–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McPhillips, M., Hepper, P. G., & Mulhern, G. (2000). Effects of replicating primary-reflex movements on specific reading difficulties in children: A randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet, 355, 537–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Meares, R. (1999). The contribution of Hughlings Jackson to an understanding of dissociation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1850–1855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Nicolson, S. E., Chabon, B., Larsen, K. A., Kelly, S. E., Potter, A. W., & Stern, T. A. (2011). Primitive reflexes associated with delirium: A prospective trial. Psychosomatics, 52, 507–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Niklasson, M. (2013). The relation between postural movement and bilateral motor integration: Comment on Lin, et al. (2012). Perceptual and Motor Skills, 117, 647–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. O’Halloran, C. J., Kinsella, G. J., & Storey, E. (2012). The cerebellum and neuropsychological functioning: A critical review. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 34(1), 35–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Polatajko, H. J. (1999). Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD): Alias, the clumsy child syndrome. In K. Whitmore, H. Hart, & G. Willems (Eds.), A neurodevelopmental approach to specific learning disorders (pp. 119–133). London: Mac Keith Press.Google Scholar
  37. Sanders, R. D., & Gillig, P. M. (2011). Reflexes in psychiatry. Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience, 8, 24–29.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Shaw, P., & Rabin, C. (2009). New insights into attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using structural neuroimaging. Current Psychiatry Reports, 11(5), 393–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Solanto, M. V., Abikoff, H., Sonuga-Barke, E., Schachar, R., Logan, G. D., Wigal, T., Hechtman, L., Hinshaw, S., & Turkel, E. (2001). The ecological validity of delay aversion and response inhibition as measures of impulsivity in AD/HD a supplement to the NIMH multi-modal treatment study of AD/HD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 215–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sonuga-Barke, E. J. (2003). The dual pathway model of AD/HD: An elaboration of neuro-developmental characteristics. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 27, 593–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sugar, J., & Ford, J. D. (2012). Peritraumatic reactions and posttraumatic stress disorder in psychiatrically impaired youth. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25, 41–49.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.21668.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Taylor, M., Houghton, S., & Chapman, E. (2004). Primitive reflexes and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Developmental origins of classroom dysfunction. International Journal of Special Education, 19, 23–37.Google Scholar
  43. Teicher, M. H., Tomoda, A., & Andersen, S. L. (2006). Neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment: Are results from human and animal studies comparable? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071, 313–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Toplak, M. E., Jain, U., & Tannock, R. (2005). Executive and motivational processes in adolescents with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Behavioral and Brain Functions, 1, 8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Touwen, B. C. L. (1984). Primitive reflexes-conceptional or semantic problem. In H. F. R. Prechtl (Ed.), Continuity of neural functions from prenatal to postnatal life. Oxford, Great Britain: Spastics International Medical Publications.Google Scholar
  46. Youssef, H. A., & Waddington, J. L. (1988). Primitive (developmental) reflexes and diffuse cerebral dysfunction in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder: Overrepresentation in patients with tardive dyskinesia. Biological Psychiatry, 23, 791–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zafeiriou, D. I. (2004). Primitive reflexes and postural reactions in the neurodevelopmental examination. Pediatric Neurology, 31, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petr Bob
    • 1
  • Jana Konicarova
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry & UHSLFirst Faculty of Medicine, Charles UniversityPragueCzech Republic
  2. 2.TCM KlinikBad KotztingGermany

Personalised recommendations