Advertisement

Pediatric Liver Disease in the Asian Continent

  • Anshu Srivastava
  • Rishi Bolia
Chapter

Abstract

South and East Asia is home to around 50% of the world’s population. The pattern of liver diseases in terms of epidemiology, clinical manifestations and outcomes in this region is different from the Western world. Increased infections, malnutrition, poor sanitation, difference in genetic make-up and inadequate access to healthcare facilities are the reasons for this difference.

Viral hepatitis is endemic. While hepatitis A and E viruses are the most common causes of acute hepatitis and liver failure, hepatitis B virus is a common cause of chronic liver disease. Infections like malaria, dengue and typhoid fever often masquerade as acute liver failure. Hepatobiliary infections like liver abscesses and hydatid cyst are important causes of morbidity. Biliary atresia and other metabolic liver diseases are often diagnosed late due to delay in referral, leading to a poor outcome. Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency is rarely encountered in this region, while citrin deficiency, Indian childhood cirrhosis and Budd–Chiari syndrome are more common. Unlike the west, where cirrhosis is the commonest cause, extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is the commonest aetiology for portal hypertension. Delay in diagnosis and non-availability of transplantation account for the large number of children with end-stage liver disease and its complications like ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, variceal bleeding and hepatic encephalopathy. Liver transplantation is mainly living donor-related, and it is not accessible to a large proportion of the population because of financial constraints and a lack of expertise.

There is an urgent need to have multidimensional collaboration between the developed and developing world and research in diseases more prevalent in this region to improve the quality of care and outcome of children with liver disease at a global level.

Keywords

South Asia East Asia Southeast Asia Children Liver diseases 

Abbreviations

AATD

α1-antitrypsin deficiency

ACLD

Acute on chronic liver disease

ACLF

Acute-on-chronic liver failure

AIH

Autoimmune hepatitis

ALA

Amoebic liver abscess

ALF

Acute liver failure

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

APASL

Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver

ATT

Antitubercular therapy

AVH

Acute viral hepatitis

BA

Biliary atresia

BCS

Budd–Chiari syndrome

BMI

Body mass index

CAM

Complementary and alternative medicine

CBD

Common bile duct

CHC

Chronic hepatitis C

CLD

Chronic liver disease

CNNA

Culture-negative neutrocytic ascites

CTLN-2

Citrullinemia type II

DAA

Directly acting antivirals

DDLT

Deceased donor liver transplantation

DHF

Dengue haemorrhagic fever

DILI

Drug-induced liver injury

EHPVO

Extrahepatic portal venous obstruction

ERCP

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

ESLD

End-stage liver disease

FTTDCD

Failure to thrive and dyslipidemia caused by citrin deficiency

HAV

Hepatitis A virus

HBeAg

Hepatitis B e antigen

HBsAg

Hepatitis B surface antigen

HBV

Hepatitis B virus

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HEV

Hepatitis E virus

HV

Hepatic veins

ICC

Indian childhood cirrhosis

IPH

Idiopathic portal hypertension

IVC

Inferior vena cava

LDLT

Living donor liver transplantation

LFT

Liver function tests

MARS

Molecular adsorbent recirculating system

MCT

Medium-chain triglyceride

MLPVB

Mesenterico-left portal vein bypass

NAFLD

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

NC

Neonatal cholestasis

NCPF

Non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis

NICCD

Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency

PAIR

Percutaneous aspiration injection and re-aspiration

PFIC

Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

PHT

Portal hypertension

PLA

Pyogenic liver abscess

SBP

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

SEAR

South-East Asia Region

TIPSS

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

UTI

Urinary tract infection

WD

Wilson’s disease

References

  1. 1.
    World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division [Internet]. [cited 2017 Jul 8]. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Publications/Files/WPP2017_KeyFindings.pdf.
  2. 2.
    Child and adolescent health and development [Internet]. [cited 2017 Jul 17]. http://www.searo.who.int/entity/child_adolescent/topics/child_health/en/.
  3. 3.
    United Nations Children’s Fund, World Health Organization TWB. Levels and trends in child malnutrition. UNICEF-WHO-The World Bank joint child malnutrition estimates. [Internet]. UNICEF, New York; WHO, Geneva; The World Bank, Washington, DC. 2012 [cited 2017 Sep 3]. www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/jme_unicef_who_wb.pdf. Accessed 3 Sept 2017.
  4. 4.
    The World Health Report 2006—working together for health [Internet]. [cited 2017 Jun 17]. www.who.int/whr/2006/en/.
  5. 5.
    Dhillon PK, Jeemon P, Arora NK, Mathur P, Maskey M, Sukirna RD, et al. Status of epidemiology in the WHO South-East Asia region: burden of disease, determinants of health and epidemiological research, workforce and training capacity. Int J Epidemiol. 2012;41(3):847–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Squires RH, Shneider BL, Bucuvalas J, Alonso E, Sokol RJ, Narkewicz MR, et al. Acute liver failure in children: the first 348 patients in the pediatric acute liver failure study group. J Pediatr. 2006;148(5):652–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mazumder MW, Karim AB, Rukunuzzaman M, Rahman MA. Aetiology and outcome of acute liver failure in children: experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh. Mymensingh Med J. 2016;25(3):492–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    PL H, Trong KH, Tran TT, Huy TTT, Abe K. Detection of hepatitis A virus RNA from children patients with acute and fulminant hepatitis of unknown etiology in Vietnam: genomic characterization of Vietnamese HAV strain. Pediatr Int. 2008;50(5):624–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Latif N, Mehmood K. Risk factors for fulminant hepatic failure and their relation with outcome in children. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010;60(3):175–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bravo LC, Gregorio GV, Shafi F, Bock HL, Boudville I, Liu Y, et al. Etiology, incidence and outcomes of acute hepatic failure in 0-18 year old Filipino children. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2012;43(3):764–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kaur S, Kumar P, Kumar V, Sarin SK, Kumar A. Etiology and prognostic factors of acute liver failure in children. Indian Pediatr. 2013;50(7):677–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Srivastava A, Yachha SK, Poddar U. Predictors of outcome in children with acute viral hepatitis and coagulopathy. J Viral Hepat. 2012;19(2):e194–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Poddar U, Thapa BR, Prasad A, Sharma AK, Singh K. Natural history and risk factors in fulminant hepatic failure. Arch Dis Child. 2002;87(1):54–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Poovorawan Y, Chongsrisawat V, Shafi F, Boudville I, Liu Y, Hutagalung Y, et al. Acute hepatic failure among hospitalized Thai children. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2013;44(1):50–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Poovorawan Y, Hutagalung Y, Chongsrisawat V, Boudville I, Bock HL. Dengue virus infection: a major cause of acute hepatic failure in Thai children. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2006;26(1):17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhao P, Wang C-Y, Liu W-W, Wang X, Yu L-M, Sun Y-R. Acute liver failure in Chinese children: a multicenter investigation. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2014;13(3):276–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kumar A, Yachha SK, Poddar U, Singh U, Aggarwal R. Does co-infection with multiple viruses adversely influence the course and outcome of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in children? J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21(10):1533–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Poddar U, Thapa BR, Prasad A, Singh K. Changing spectrum of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in Indian children. J Trop Pediatr. 2002;48(4):210–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chadha MS, Walimbe AM, Chobe LP, Arankalle VA. Comparison of etiology of sporadic acute and fulminant viral hepatitis in hospitalized patients in Pune, India during 1978-81 and 1994-97. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2003;22(1):11–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kc S, Sharma D, Poudyal N, Basnet BK. Acute Viral Hepatitis in Pediatric Age Groups. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. 2014;52(193):687–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kumar KJ, Kumar HCK, Manjunath VG, Anitha C, Mamatha S. Hepatitis A in children- clinical course, complications and laboratory profile. Indian J Pediatr. 2014;81(1):15–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yachha SK, Goel A, Khanna V, Poddar U, Srivastava A, Singh U. Ascitic form of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in children: a distinct entity for recognition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010;50(2):184–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jacobsen KH. The global prevalence of hepatitis A virus infection and susceptibility: a systematic review. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010. 428 p.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
    Van Effelterre T, Marano C, Jacobsen KH. Modeling the hepatitis A epidemiological transition in Thailand. Vaccine. 2016;34(4):555–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Verghese VP, Robinson JL. A systematic review of hepatitis E virus infection in children. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(5):689–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fischler B, Baumann U, Dezsofi A, Hadzic N, Hierro L, Jahnel J, et al. Hepatitis E in children: a position paper by the ESPGHAN Hepatology Committee. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016;63(2):288–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Devarbhavi H, Karanth D, Prasanna KS, Adarsh CK, Patil M. Drug-induced liver injury with hypersensitivity features has a better outcome: a single-center experience of 39 children and adolescents. Hepatology. 2011;54(4):1344–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Donald PR. Antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in children. Pediatr Rep. 2011;3(2):e16.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Devarbhavi H, Singh R, Patil M, Sheth K, Adarsh CK, Balaraju G. Outcome and determinants of mortality in 269 patients with combination anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;28(1):161–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dhiman RK, Saraswat VA, Rajekar H, Reddy C, Chawla YK. A guide to the management of tuberculosis in patients with chronic liver disease. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2012;2(3):260–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jan MA, Siddiqui TS, Ahmed N, Ul Haq I, Khan Z. Mushroom poisoning in children: clinical presentation and outcome. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008;20(2):99–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ozçay F, Baskin E, Ozdemir N, Karakayali H, Emiroglu R, Haberal M. Fulminant liver failure secondary to mushroom poisoning in children: importance of early referral to a liver transplantation unit. Pediatr Transplant. 2006;10(2):259–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Saraf V, Pande S, Gopalakrishnan U, Balakrishnan D, Menon RN, Sudheer OV, et al. Acute liver failure due to zinc phosphide containing rodenticide poisoning: clinical features and prognostic indicators of need for liver transplantation. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2015;34(4):325–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Khan W, Zakai HA, Umm-E-Asma. Clinico-pathological studies of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax - malaria in India and Saudi Arabia. Acta Parasitol. 2014;59(2):206–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kumar R, Tripathi P, Tripathi S, Kanodia A, Venkatesh V. Prevalence of dengue infection in north Indian children with acute hepatic failure. Ann Hepatol. 2008;7(1):59–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chongsrisawat V, Hutagalung Y, Poovorawan Y. Liver function test results and outcomes in children with acute liver failure due to dengue infection. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2009;40(1):47–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chanta C, Triratanapa K, Ratanasirichup P, Mahaprom W. Hepatic dysfunction in pediatric scrub typhus: role of liver function test in diagnosis and marker of disease severity. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90(11):2366–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dass R, Deka NM, Duwarah SG, Barman H, Hoque R, Mili D, et al. Characteristics of pediatric scrub typhus during an outbreak in the North Eastern region of India: peculiarities in clinical presentation, laboratory findings and complications. Indian J Pediatr. 2011;78(11):1365–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Karanth SS, Bhat R, Gupta A. Refractory hypocalcemia precipitated by dual infection with typhoid fever and hepatitis A in a patient with congenital hypoparathyroidism. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;5(8):667–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
    Syhavong B, Rasachack B, Smythe L, Rolain J-M, Roque-Afonso A-M, Jenjaroen K, et al. The infective causes of hepatitis and jaundice amongst hospitalised patients in Vientiane, Laos. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010;104(7):475–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Martínez Vega R, Phumratanaprapin W, Phonrat B, Dhitavat J, Sutherat M, Choovichian V. Differences in liver impairment between adults and children with dengue infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016;94(5):1073–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schwartz E, Weld LH, Wilder-Smith A, von Sonnenburg F, Keystone JS, Kain KC, et al. Seasonality, annual trends, and characteristics of dengue among ill returned travelers, 1997-2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1081–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mishra K, Basu S, Roychoudhury S, Kumar P. Liver abscess in children: an overview. World J Pediatr. 2010;6(3):210–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hsu Y-L, Lin H-C, Yen T-Y, Hsieh T-H, Wei H-M, Hwang K-P. Pyogenic liver abscess among children in a medical center in Central Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2015;48(3):302–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Roy Choudhury S, Khan NA, Saxena R, Yadav PS, Patel JN, Chadha R. Protocol-based management of 154 cases of pediatric liver abscess. Pediatr Surg Int. 2017;33(2):165–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Srivastava A, Yachha SK, Arora V, Poddar U, Lal R, Baijal SS. Identification of high-risk group and therapeutic options in children with liver abscess. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171(1):33–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Muorah M, Hinds R, Verma A, Yu D, Samyn M, Mieli-Vergani G, et al. Liver abscesses in children: a single center experience in the developed world. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006;42(2):201–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bhatt GC, Nandan D, Singh S. Isolated tuberculous liver abscess in immunocompetent children—report of two cases. Pathog Glob Health. 2013;107(1):35–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bari S, Sheikh KA, Ashraf M, Hussain Z, Hamid A, Mufti GN. Ascaris liver abscess in children. J Gastroenterol. 2007;42(3):236–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Alam J, Wazir MD, Muhammad Z. Biliary Ascariasis in children. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2001;13(2):32–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Malik AH, Saima BD, Wani MY. Management of hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis in children of an endemic area. Pediatr Surg Int. 2006;22(2):164–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Huizinga WKJ, Grant CSDAS. In: Morris PJWWC, editor. Oxford textbook of surgery . 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2000. p. 3298–305.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ghartimagar D, Ghosh A, Shrestha MK, Talwar OP, Sathian B. 14 years hospital based study on clinical and morphological spectrum of hydatid disease. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. 2013;52(190):349–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Oral A, Yigiter M, Yildiz A, Yalcin O, Dikmen T, Eren S, et al. Diagnosis and management of hydatid liver disease in children: a report of 156 patients with hydatid disease. J Pediatr Surg. 2012;47(3):528–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chai J, Menghebat, Jiao W, Sun D, Liang B, Shi J, et al. Clinical efficacy of albendazole emulsion in treatment of 212 cases of liver cystic hydatidosis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2002;115(12):1809–13.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yang YR, Sun T, Li Z, Zhang J, Teng J, Liu X, et al. Community surveys and risk factor analysis of human alveolar and cystic echinococcosis in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84(9):714–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    South East Asia Regional Neonatal-Perinatal Database [Internet]. [cited 2017 Jul 14]. http://www.newbornwhocc.org/pdf/SEAR_NPD-Final_report.PDF.
  60. 60.
    Bazlul Karim ASM, Kamal M. Cholestatic jaundice during infancy: experience at a tertiary-care center in Bangladesh. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2005;24(2):52–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Arora NK, Arora S, Ahuja A, Mathur P, Maheshwari M, Das MK, et al. Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency in children with chronic liver disease in North India. Indian Pediatr. 2010;47(12):1015–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Aanpreung P, Laohapansang M, Ruangtrakool R, Kimhan J. Neonatal cholestasis in Thai infants. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88(Suppl 8):S9–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lee WS, Chai PF, Boey CM, Looi LM. Aetiology and outcome of neonatal cholestasis in Malaysia. Singapore Med J. 2010;51(5):434–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lu F-T, Wu J-F, Hsu H-Y, Ni Y-H, Chang M-H, Chao C-I, et al. γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase level as a screening marker among diverse etiologies of infantile intrahepatic cholestasis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014;59(6):695–701.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lee WS. Pre-admission consultation and late referral in infants with neonatal cholestasis. J Paediatr Child Health. 2008;44(1–2):57–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wongsawasdi L, Ukarapol N, Visrutaratna P, Singhavejsakul J, Kattipattanapong V. Diagnostic evaluation of infantile cholestasis. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91(3):345–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mathiyazhagan G, Jagadisan B. Referral patterns and factors influencing age at admission of infants with cholestasis in India. Indian J Pediatr. 2017;84(8):591–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lien T-H, Chang M-H, Wu J-F, Chen H-L, Lee H-C, Chen A-C, et al. Effects of the infant stool color card screening program on 5-year outcome of biliary atresia in Taiwan. Hepatology. 2011;53(1):202–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    de Serres FJ. Worldwide racial and ethnic distribution of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency: summary of an analysis of published genetic epidemiologic surveys. Chest. 2002;122(5):1818–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Moyer V, Freese DK, Whitington PF, Olson AD, Brewer F, Colletti RB, et al. Guideline for the evaluation of cholestatic jaundice in infants: recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2004;39(2):115–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lee WS, Yap SF, Looi LM. alpha1-Antitrypsin deficiency is not an important cause of childhood liver diseases in a multi-ethnic Southeast Asian population. J Paediatr Child Health. 2007;43(9):636–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tan JJ, Cutiongco-dela Paz EM, Avila JMC, Gregorio GV. Low incidence of alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency among Filipinos with neonatal cholestatis. J Paediatr Child Health. 2006;42(11):694–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ohura T, Kobayashi K, Tazawa Y, Nishi I, Abukawa D, Sakamoto O, et al. Neonatal presentation of adult-onset type II citrullinemia. Hum Genet. 2001;108(2):87–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Song Y-Z, Zhang Z-H, Lin W-X, Zhao X-J, Deng M, Ma Y-L, et al. SLC25A13 gene analysis in citrin deficiency: sixteen novel mutations in East Asian patients, and the mutation distribution in a large pediatric cohort in China. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e74544.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lu YB, Kobayashi K, Ushikai M, Tabata A, Iijima M, Li MX, et al. Frequency and distribution in East Asia of 12 mutations identified in the SLC25A13 gene of Japanese patients with citrin deficiency. J Hum Genet. 2005;50(7):338–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Treepongkaruna S, Jitraruch S, Kodcharin P, Charoenpipop D, Suwannarat P, Pienvichit P, et al. Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency: prevalence and SLC25A13 mutations among Thai infants. BMC Gastroenterol. 2012;12:141.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Saheki T, Song Y-Z. Citrin deficiency. GeneReviews(®). Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1181/. Accessed 5 Jan 2018.
  78. 78.
    Chen R, Wang X-H, Fu H-Y, Zhang S-R, Abudouxikuer K, Saheki T, et al. Different regional distribution of SLC25A13 mutations in Chinese patients with neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(28):4545–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ngu HL, Zabedah MY, Kobayashi K. Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) in three Malay children. Malays J Pathol. 2010;32(1):53–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Vitoria I, Dalmau J, Ribes C, Rausell D, García AM, López-Montiel J, et al. Citrin deficiency in a Romanian child living in Spain highlights the worldwide distribution of this defect and illustrates the value of nutritional therapy. Mol Genet Metab. 2013;110(1–2):181–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Agarwal S, Lal BB, Rawat D, Rastogi A, Bharathy KGS, Alam S. Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis (PFIC) in Indian children: clinical spectrum and outcome. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2016;6(3):203–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lee WS, Chai PF, Looi LM. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis in Malaysian patients—a report of five cases. Med J Malaysia. 2009;64(3):216–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Chen H-L, Liu Y-J, Su Y-N, Wang N-Y, Wu S-H, Ni Y-H, et al. Diagnosis of BSEP/ABCB11 mutations in Asian patients with cholestasis using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography. J Pediatr. 2008;153(6):825–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Khanna R, Sarin SK. Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension—diagnosis and management. J Hepatol. 2014;60(2):421–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Poddar U, Thapa BR, Rao KLN, Singh K. Etiological spectrum of esophageal varices due to portal hypertension in Indian children: is it different from the West? J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23(9):1354–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wu J, Li Z, Wang Z, Han X, Ji F, Zhang WW. Surgical and endovascular treatment of severe complications secondary to noncirrhotic portal hypertension: experience of 56 cases. Ann Vasc Surg. 2013;27(4):441–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sarin SK, Sollano JD, Chawla YK, Amarapurkar D, Hamid S, Hashizume M, et al. Consensus on extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction. Liver Int. 2006;26(5):512–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hanif FM, Soomro GB, Akhund SN, Luck NH, Laeeq SM, Abbas Z, et al. Clinical presentation of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction: 10-year experience at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. J Transl Intern Med. 2015;3(2):74–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Yadav SK, Srivastava A, Srivastava A, Thomas MA, Agarwal J, Pandey CM, et al. Encephalopathy assessment in children with extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction with MR, psychometry and critical flicker frequency. J Hepatol. 2010;52(3):348–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Krishna YR, Yachha SK, Srivastava A, Negi D, Lal R, Poddar U. Quality of life in children managed for extrahepatic portal venous obstruction. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010;50(5):531–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Shneider BL, de Ville de Goyet J, Leung DH, Srivastava A, Ling SC, Duché M, et al. Primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in children and the role of MesoRex Bypass: summary of the Baveno VI Pediatric Satellite Symposium. Hepatology. 2016;63(4):1368–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lal R, Sarma SM, Gupta MK. Extrahepatic portal venous obstruction: what should be the mainstay of treatment? Indian J Pediatr. 2017;84(9):691–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sarin SK, Kumar A, Chawla YK, Baijal SS, Dhiman RK, Jafri W, et al. Noncirrhotic portal fibrosis/idiopathic portal hypertension: APASL recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. Hepatol Int. 2007;1(3):398–413.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sood V, Lal BB, Khanna R, Rawat D, Sharma CB, Alam S. Non-cirrhotic Portal Fibrosis in Pediatric Population. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;64(5):748–53.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000001485.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Poddar U, Thapa BR, Puri P, Girish CS, Vaiphei K, Vasishta RK, et al. Non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis in children. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2000;19(1):12–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Parkash A, Cheema HA, Malik HS, Fayyaz Z. Congenital hepatic fibrosis: clinical presentation, laboratory features and management at a tertiary care hospital of Lahore. J Pak Med Assoc. 2016;66(8):984–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Alam S, Lal BB, Sood V, Rawat D. Pediatric acute-on-chronic liver failure in a specialized liver unit: prevalence, profile, outcome, and predictive factors. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016;63(4):400–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Zhang H-F, Yang X-J, Zhu S-S, Zhao J-M, Zhang T-H, Xu Z-Q, et al. Pathological changes and clinical manifestations of 1020 children with liver diseases confirmed by biopsy. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2004;3(3):395–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hanif M, Raza J, Qureshi H, Issani Z. Etiology of chronic liver disease in children. J Pak Med Assoc. 2004;54(3):119–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Tahir A, Malik FR, Ahmad I, Akhtar P. Aetiological factors of chronic liver disease in children. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2011;23(2):12–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Nannini P, Sokal EM. Hepatitis B: changing epidemiology and interventions. Arch Dis Child. 2017;102(7):676–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lesmana LA, Leung NW, Mahachai V, Phiet PH, Suh DJYG. Hepatitis B: overview of the burden of disease in the Asia-Pacific region. Liver Int. 2006;26:3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Schweitzer A, Horn J, Mikolajczyk RT, Krause G, Ott JJ. Estimations of worldwide prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a systematic review of data published between 1965 and 2013. Lancet (London, England). 2015;386(10003):1546–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Luo Z, Xie Y, Deng M, Zhou X, Ruan B. Prevalence of hepatitis B in the southeast of China: a population-based study with a large sample size. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;23(8):695–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zeng F, Guo P, Huang Y, Xin W, Du Z, Zhu S, et al. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection: results from a community-based study of 0.15 million residents in South China. Sci Rep. 2016;6:36186.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jafri W, Jafri N, Yakoob J, Islam M, Tirmizi SFA, Jafar T, et al. Hepatitis B and C: prevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity among children in Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:101.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rukunuzzaman M, Afroza A. Clinical, biochemical and virological profile of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in children. Mymensingh Med J. 2012;21(1):120–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Khan MAN. Epidemiology of hepatitis B in SAARC countries. In: Sarin SKOK, editor. Hepatitis B and C: carrier to cancer. New Delhi: Harcourt; 2002. p. 19–23.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ott JJ, Stevens GA, Groeger J, Wiersma ST. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection: new estimates of age-specific HBsAg seroprevalence and endemicity. Vaccine. 2012;30(12):2212–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Chang MH, Chen CJ, Lai MS, Hsu HM, Wu TC, Kong MS, et al. Universal hepatitis B vaccination in Taiwan and the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in children. Taiwan Childhood Hepatoma Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(26):1855–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Zhou Y, Wu C, Zhuang H. Vaccination against hepatitis B: the Chinese experience. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009;122(1):98–102.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Parry J. At last a global response to viral hepatitis. Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88(11):801–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Satapathy SK, Garg S, Chauhan R, Malhotra V, Sakhuja P, Sharma BC, et al. Profile of chronic hepatitis B virus in children in India: experience with 116 children. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21(7):1170–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tseng Y-R, Wu J-F, Kong M-S, Hu F-C, Yang Y-J, Yeung C-Y, et al. Infantile hepatitis B in immunized children: risk for fulminant hepatitis and long-term outcomes. PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e111825.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    WHO. Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016–2021 [Internet] [cited 2017 July 17]. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/246177/1/WHO-HIV-2016.06-eng.pdf.
  116. 116.
    Sokal E, Nannini P. Hepatitis C virus in children: the global picture. Arch Dis Child. 2017;102(7):672–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mohd Hanafiah K, Groeger J, Flaxman AD, Wiersma ST. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: new estimates of age-specific antibody to HCV seroprevalence. Hepatology. 2013;57(4):1333–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Chanpong GF, Laras K, Sulaiman HA, Soeprapto W, Purnamawati S, Sukri N, et al. Hepatitis C among child transfusion and adult renal dialysis patients in Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;66(3):317–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kelly D, Sharif K, Brown RM, Morland B. Hepatocellular carcinoma in children. Clin Liver Dis. 2015;19(2):433–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Alam S, Khanna R, Mukund A. Clinical and prothrombotic profile of hepatic vein outflow tract obstruction. Indian J Pediatr. 2014;81(5):434–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Nobre S, Khanna R, Bab N, Kyrana E, Height S, Karani J, et al. Primary Budd-Chiari Syndrome in Children. King’s College Hospital Experience. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;65(1):93–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Martens P, Nevens F. Budd-Chiari syndrome. United Eur Gastroenterol J. 2015;3(6):489–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Shrestha SM, Shrestha S. Hepatic vena cava syndrome: a common cause of liver cirrhosis in children in Nepal. Trop Gastroenterol. 2014;35(2):85–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kathuria R, Srivastava A, Yachha SK, Poddar U, Baijal SS. Budd-Chiari syndrome in children: clinical features, percutaneous radiological intervention, and outcome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;26(9):1030–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sharma VK, Ranade PR, Marar S, Nabi F, Nagral A. Long-term clinical outcome of Budd-Chiari syndrome in children after radiological intervention. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;28(5):567–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Tasneem AA, Soomro GB, Abbas Z, Luck NH, Hassan SM. Clinical presentation and predictors of survival in patients with Budd Chiari syndrome: experience from a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2015;65(2):120–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Zhou W-J, Cui Y-F, Zu M-H, Zhang Q-Q, Xu H. Budd-Chiari syndrome in young Chinese: clinical characteristics, etiology and outcome of recanalization from a single center. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2016;39(4):557–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Valla D-C. Primary Budd-Chiari syndrome. J Hepatol. 2009;50(1):195–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Taly AB, Meenakshi-Sundaram S, Sinha S, Swamy HS, Arunodaya GR. Wilson disease: description of 282 patients evaluated over 3 decades. Medicine (Baltimore). 2007;86(2):112–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Hahn SH, Lee SY, Jang Y-J, Kim SN, Shin HC, Park SY, et al. Pilot study of mass screening for Wilson’s disease in Korea. Mol Genet Metab. 2002;76(2):133–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Park H-D, Ki C-S, Lee S-Y, Kim J-W. Carrier frequency of the R778L, A874V, and N1270S mutations in the ATP7B gene in a Korean population. Clin Genet. 2009;75(4):405–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Mak CM, Lam C-W, Tam S, Lai C-L, Chan L-Y, Fan S-T, et al. Mutational analysis of 65 Wilson disease patients in Hong Kong Chinese: identification of 17 novel mutations and its genetic heterogeneity. J Hum Genet. 2008;53(1):55–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Mohamed R, Tan CT, Wong NW. Wilson’s disease—a review of cases at University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Med J Malaysia. 1994;49(1):49–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Coffey AJ, Durkie M, Hague S, McLay K, Emmerson J, Lo C, et al. A genetic study of Wilson’s disease in the United Kingdom. Brain. 2013;136.(Pt 5:1476–87.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Zhang YWZ. Wilson’s disease in Asia. Neurol Asia. 2011;16(2):103–9.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Aggarwal A, Chandhok G, Todorov T, Parekh S, Tilve S, Zibert A, et al. Wilson disease mutation pattern with genotype-phenotype correlations from Western India: confirmation of p.C271* as a common Indian mutation and identification of 14 novel mutations. Ann Hum Genet. 2013;77(4):299–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Tanner MS, Portmann B. Indian childhood cirrhosis. Arch Dis Child. 1981;56(1):4–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Nayak NC, Chitale AR. Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC) & ICC-like diseases: the changing scenario of facts versus notions. Indian J Med Res. 2013;137(6):1029–42.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Patra S, Vij M, Kancherala R, Samal SC. Is Indian childhood cirrhosis an extinct disease now?—An observational study. Indian J Pediatr. 2013;80(8):651–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ramakrishna B, Date A, Kirubakaran C, Raghupathy P. Atypical copper cirrhosis in Indian children. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1995;15(3):237–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Chaturvedi K, Vohra P. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children. Indian Pediatr. 2012;49(9):757–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Pawar SV, Zanwar VG, Choksey AS, Mohite AR, Jain SS, Surude RG, et al. Most overweight and obese Indian children have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Ann Hepatol. 2016;15(6):853–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Lin Y-C, Chang P-F, Hu F-C, Yang W-S, Chang M-H, Ni Y-H. A common variant in the PNPLA3 gene is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese Taiwanese children. J Pediatr. 2011;158(5):740–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Park HS, Han JH, Choi KM, Kim SM. Relation between elevated serum alanine aminotransferase and metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(5):1046–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Zhang X, Wan Y, Zhang S, Lu L, Chen Z, Liu H, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease prevalence in urban school-aged children and adolescents from the Yangtze River delta region: a cross-sectional study. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2015;24(2):281–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Ramzan M, Ali IMA. Sonographic assessment of hepatic steatosis (fatty liver) in School Children of Dera Ismail Khan City (NWFP) Pakistan. Pak J Nutr. 2009;8(6):797–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Clark JM, Brancati FL, Diehl AM. The prevalence and etiology of elevated aminotransferase levels in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98(5):960–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Madan K, Batra Y, Panda SK, Dattagupta S, Hazari S, Jha JK, et al. Role of polymerase chain reaction and liver biopsy in the evaluation of patients with asymptomatic transaminitis: implications in diagnostic approach. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;19(11):1291–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Anderson EL, Howe LD, Jones HE, Higgins JPT, Lawlor DA, Fraser A. The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0140908.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Shang X-R, Song J-Y, Liu F-H, Ma J, Wang H-J. GWAS-identified common variants with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in chinese children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015;60(5):669–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. dbSNP accession:ss48413901 [Internet]. [cited 2017 Aug 27]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/SNP/snp_ss.cgi?ss=ss48413901.
  152. 152.
    Singh S, Kuftinec GN, Sarkar S. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in South Asians: a review of the literature. J Clin Transl Hepatol. 2017;5(1):76–81.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Leonis MA, Balistreri WF. Evaluation and management of end-stage liver disease in children. Gastroenterology. 2008;134(6):1741–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Widodo AD, Soelaeman EJ, Dwinanda N, Narendraswari PP, Purnomo B. Chronic liver disease is a risk factor for malnutrition and growth retardation in children. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017;26(Suppl 1):S57–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Oh SH, Kim SJ, Rhee KW, Kim KM. Endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection for the treatment of gastric varices in children. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21(9):2719–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Kang KS, Yang HR, Ko JS, Seo JK. Long-term outcomes of endoscopic variceal ligation to prevent rebleeding in children with esophageal varices. J Korean Med Sci. 2013;28(11):1657–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sharma P, Sharma BC. Profile of hepatic encephalopathy in children with cirrhosis and response to lactulose. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2011;17(2):138–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Srivastava A, Malik R, Bolia R, Yachha SK, Poddar U. Prevalence, clinical profile, and outcome of ascitic fluid infection in children with liver disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;64(2):194–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Vieira SMG, Matte U, Kieling CO, Barth AL, Ferreira CT, Souza AF, et al. Infected and noninfected ascites in pediatric patients. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005;40(3):289–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    El-Shabrawi MHF, El-Sisi O, Okasha S, Isa M, Elmakarem SA, Eyada I, et al. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in infants and children with chronic liver disease: a cohort study. Ital J Pediatr. 2011;37:26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Bolia R, Srivastava A, Marak R, Yachha SK, Poddar U. Role of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as biomarkers of infection in children with liver disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016;63(4):406–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Bolia R, Srivastava A, Marak R, Yachha SK, Poddar U. Prevalence and impact of bacterial infections in children with liver disease—a prospective study. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2018;8(1):35–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jceh.2017.08.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Bajaj JS. Defining acute-on-chronic liver failure: will East and West ever meet? Gastroenterology. 2013;144(7):1337–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lal J, Thapa BR, Rawal P, Ratho RK, Singh K. Predictors of outcome in acute-on-chronic liver failure in children. Hepatol Int. 2011;5(2):693–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Bolia R, Srivastava A, Yachha SK, Poddar U. Pediatric CLIF-SOFA score is the best predictor of 28-day mortality in children with decompensated chronic liver disease. J Hepatol. 2018;68(3):449–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2017.10.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Rao S, D’Cruz AJ, Aggarwal R, Chandrashekar S, Chetan G, Gopalakrishnan G, et al. Pediatric liver transplantation: a report from a pediatric surgical unit. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg. 2011;16(1):2–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Sibal A, Bhatia V, Gupta S. Fifteen years of liver transplantation in India. Indian Pediatr. 2013;50(11):999–1000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Nonthasoot B, Sirichindakul B, Suphapol J, Taesombat W, Sutherasan M, Nivatvongs S. Orthotopic liver transplantation at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital: a report. J Med Assoc Thai. 2015;98(Suppl 1):S127–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Zhou J, Shen Z, He Y, Zheng S, Fan J. The current status of pediatric liver transplantation in Mainland China. Pediatr Transplant. 2010;14(5):575–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Kim JM, Kim KM, Yi N-J, Choe YH, Kim MS, Suh KS, et al. Pediatric liver transplantation outcomes in Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 2013;28(1):42–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Mali VP, Aw M, Quak SH, Loh DL, Prabhakaran K. Vascular complications in pediatric liver transplantation; single-center experience from Singapore. Transplant Proc. 2012;44(5):1373–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Soejima Y, Taketomi A, Yoshizumi T, Uchiyama H, Harada N, Ijichi H, et al. Biliary strictures in living donor liver transplantation: incidence, management, and technical evolution. Liver Transpl. 2006;12(6):979–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Shukla A, Vadeyar H, Rela M, Shah S. Liver transplantation: east versus west. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2013;3(3):243–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Stanaway JD, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, Fitzmaurice C, Vos T, Abubakar I, et al. The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet (London, England). 2016 10;388(10049):1081–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anshu Srivastava
    • 1
  • Rishi Bolia
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric GastroenterologySanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical SciencesLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations